The emergence of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in the cardiovascular arena as viewed from a clinical perspective

Rankin, N. J. , Preiss, D. , Welsh, P. , Burgess, K. E.V., Nelson, S. M. , Lawlor, D. A. and Sattar, N. (2014) The emergence of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in the cardiovascular arena as viewed from a clinical perspective. Atherosclerosis, 237(1), pp. 287-300. (doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.09.024) (PMID:25299963) (PMCID:PMC4232363)

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The ability to phenotype metabolic profiles in serum has increased substantially in recent years with the advent of metabolomics. Metabolomics is the study of the metabolome, defined as those molecules with an atomic mass less than 1.5 kDa. There are two main metabolomics methods: mass spectrometry (MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, each with its respective benefits and limitations. MS has greater sensitivity and so can detect many more metabolites. However, its cost (especially when heavy labelled internal standards are required for absolute quantitation) and quality control is sub-optimal for large cohorts. 1H NMR is less sensitive but sample preparation is generally faster and analysis times shorter, resulting in markedly lower analysis costs. 1H NMR is robust, reproducible and can provide absolute quantitation of many metabolites. Of particular relevance to cardio-metabolic disease is the ability of 1H NMR to provide detailed quantitative data on amino acids, fatty acids and other metabolites as well as lipoprotein subparticle concentrations and size. Early epidemiological studies suggest promise, however, this is an emerging field and more data is required before we can determine the clinical utility of these measures to improve disease prediction and treatment. This review describes the theoretical basis of 1H NMR; compares MS and 1H NMR and provides a tabular overview of recent 1H NMR-based research findings in the atherosclerosis field, describing the design and scope of studies conducted to date. 1H NMR metabolomics-CVD related research is emerging, however further large, robustly conducted prospective, genetic and intervention studies are needed to advance research on CVD risk prediction and to identify causal pathways amenable to intervention.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Nelson, Professor Scott and Welsh, Professor Paul and Rankin, Dr Naomi and Burgess, Dr Karl and Preiss, Dr David and Sattar, Professor Naveed
Authors: Rankin, N. J., Preiss, D., Welsh, P., Burgess, K. E.V., Nelson, S. M., Lawlor, D. A., and Sattar, N.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Health
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity
Journal Name:Atherosclerosis
Publisher:Elsevier Ireland Ltd
ISSN (Online):1879-1484
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2014 The Authors
First Published:First published in Atherosclerosis 237(1):287-300
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
621401Assessing the predictive value of quantitative high-throughput NMR metabolomic analysis for CVD events in a major study of diabetes: ADVANCEPaul WelshChest, Heart & Stroke, Scotland (CHSS)R13/A149RI CARDIOVASCULAR & MEDICAL SCIENCES
612031Cardiac biomarkers and CVD risk screening: a cost-effective public health measure?Paul WelshBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)FS/12/62/29889RI CARDIOVASCULAR & MEDICAL SCIENCES
617341The application of a high-throughput NMR metabolomics system to the study of insulin resistance (ISSF Catalyst)David PreissWellcome Trust (WELLCOME)097821/Z/11/ZRI CARDIOVASCULAR & MEDICAL SCIENCES