Development of a nutritionally balanced pizza as a functional meal designed to meet published dietary guidelines

Combet, E. , Jarlot, A., Aidoo, K. E. and Lean, M. E. J. (2014) Development of a nutritionally balanced pizza as a functional meal designed to meet published dietary guidelines. Public Health Nutrition, 17(11), pp. 2577-2586. (doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002814)

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<b>Objective</b> To develop a worked example of product reformulation of a very popular ‘junk food’ to meet nutritional guidelines for public health in a ready meal.<p></p> <b>Design</b> Indicative survey of popular Margherita pizzas, followed by product reformulation, applying dietary guidelines to generate a single-item pizza meal containing 30 % daily amounts of energy and all nutrients. An iterative process was used; first to optimize nutrient balance by adjusting the proportions of bread base, tomato-based sauce and mozzarella topping, then adding ingredients to provide specific nutrients and consumer tasting.<p></p> <b>Setting</b> Urban areas of contrasting socio-economic status.<p></p> <b>Subjects</b> Untrained unselected adults (n 49) and children (n 63), assessing pizza at tasting stations.<p></p> <b>Results</b> Most commercial pizzas provide insufficient information to assess all nutrients and traditional Margherita pizza ingredients provide insufficient Fe, Zn, iodine, and vitamins C and B12. Energy content of the portions currently sold as standard range from 837 to 2351 kJ (200 to 562 kcal), and most exceed 30 % Guideline Daily Amounts for saturated fat and Na when a 2510 kJ (600 kcal) notional meal is considered. The ‘nutritionally balanced pizza’ provides the required energy for a single-item meal (2510 kJ/600 kcal), with all nutrients within recommended ranges: Na (473 mg, ∼45 % below recommended level), saturated fat (<11 % energy) and dietary fibre (13·7 g). Most adults (77 %) and children (81 %) rated it ‘as good as’ or ‘better than’ their usual choice.<p></p> <b>Conclusions</b> Nutritional guidelines to reduce chronic diseases can be applied to reformulate ‘junk food’ ready meals, to improve public health through a health-by-stealth approach without requiring change in eating habits.<p></p>

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lean, Professor Michael and Jarlot, Miss Amandine and Combet Aspray, Professor Emilie
Authors: Combet, E., Jarlot, A., Aidoo, K. E., and Lean, M. E. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:Public Health Nutrition
Publisher:Cambridge University Press
ISSN (Online):1475-2727
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2013 Cambridge University Press
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher
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