Alarmins in tendinopathy: unravelling new mechanisms in a common disease

Millar, N. , Murrell, G.A.C. and McInnes, I. (2013) Alarmins in tendinopathy: unravelling new mechanisms in a common disease. Rheumatology, 52(5), pp. 769-779. (PMID:23362223)

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Tendon disorders-tendinopathies-are the primary reason for musculoskeletal consultation in primary care in the UK and account for up to 30% of rheumatological consultations. While the molecular pathophysiology of tendinopathy remains incompletely understood, recent observations concerning repetitive stress and cellular load provide important mechanistic insight implicating a role for tissue alarmins. These in turn have an emerging effector role in many disease processes across the rheumatological diseases. Intracellular alarmins, also called damage-associated molecular patterns, are rapidly released following non-programmed cell death, are key effectors of the innate immune system and critically restore homeostasis by promoting the reconstruction of the affected tissue. Recent investigations have highlighted a key role for several alarmins including hypoxia-induced elements, cytokines and heat shock proteins affecting tissue rescue mechanisms in tendon pathology. This review aims to provide an overview of the biology of alarmins in the context of inflammatory mediators and matrix regulation in tendinopathy.

Item Type:Articles (Other)
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:McInnes, Professor Iain and Millar, Professor Neal
Authors: Millar, N., Murrell, G.A.C., and McInnes, I.
Subjects:R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity
Journal Name:Rheumatology
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN (Online):1462-0332
Published Online:28 January 2013
First Published:doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kes409

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
613591Interleukin 33 in Tendon diseaseNeal MillarArthritis Research UK (ARC)20086III -IMMUNOLOGY