The dynamic chemistry of molecular Borromean rings and Solomon knots

Meyer, C.D., Forgan, R.S. , Chichak, K.S., Peters, A.J., Tangchaivang, N., Cave, G.W.V., Khan, S.I., Cantrill, S.J. and Stoddart, J.F. (2010) The dynamic chemistry of molecular Borromean rings and Solomon knots. Chemistry: A European Journal, 16(42), pp. 12570-12581. (doi: 10.1002/chem.201001806)

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The dynamic solution equilibria between molecular Borromean rings (BRs) and Solomon knots (SKs), assembled from transition metal-templated macrocycles, consisting of exobidentate bipyridyl and endo-tridentate diiminopyridyl ligands, have been examined with respect to the choice of the metal template and reaction conditions employed in the synthesis of the metalated BRs, otherwise known as Borromeates. Three new Borromeates, their syntheses templated by Cu(II), Co(II), and Mn(II), have been characterized extensively (two by X-ray crystallography) to the extent that the metal centers in the assemblies have been shown to be distanced sufficiently from each other not to communicate. The solid-state structure of the Co(II)-Borromeate reveals that six MeOH molecules, arranged in a [O-H center dot center dot center dot O] hydrogen bonded, chair-like conformation, are located within its oxophilic central cavity. When a mixture of Cu(II) and Zn(II) is used as the source of templation, there exists a dynamic equilibrium, in MeOH at room temperature, between a mixed-metal BR and a SK, from which the latter has been fractionally crystallized. By employing appropriate synthetic protocols with Zn(II) or Cd(II) as the template, significant amounts of SKs are formed alongside BRs. Modified crystallization conditions resulted in the isolation of both an all-zinc BR and an all-zinc SK, crystals of which can be separated manually, leading to the full characterization of the all-zinc SK by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. This doubly interlocked [2] catenate has been identified retrospectively in recorded spectra, where it was attributed previously to a Borromeate with a Zn(II) cation coordinated to the oxophilic interior walls of the ensemble. Interestingly, these Zn(II)-templated assemblies do not interconvert in MeOH at room temperature, indicating the significant influence of both the metal template and solvent on the solution equilibria. It would also appear that d(10) metal ions favor SK formation-no evidence of Cu(II)-, Co(II)-, or Mn(II)-templated SKs has been found, yet a 1:0.9 ratio of BR: SK has been identified by (1)H NMR spectroscopy when CdII is used as the template.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Forgan, Professor Ross
Authors: Meyer, C.D., Forgan, R.S., Chichak, K.S., Peters, A.J., Tangchaivang, N., Cave, G.W.V., Khan, S.I., Cantrill, S.J., and Stoddart, J.F.
Subjects:Q Science > QD Chemistry
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Chemistry
Journal Name:Chemistry: A European Journal
Published Online:22 October 2010

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