Early detection and intervention evaluation for people at risk of psychosis: multisite randomised controlled trial

Morrison, A. P. et al. (2012) Early detection and intervention evaluation for people at risk of psychosis: multisite randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 344, e2233. (doi: 10.1136/bmj.e2233)

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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e2233


<b>Objective:</b> To determine whether cognitive therapy is effective in preventing the worsening of emerging psychotic symptoms experienced by help seeking young people deemed to be at risk for serious conditions such as schizophrenia.<p></p> <b>Design:</b> Multisite single blind randomised controlled trial.<p></p> <b>Setting:</b> Diverse services at five UK sites.<p></p> <b>Participants:</b> 288 participants aged 14-35 years (mean 20.74, SD 4.34 years) at high risk of psychosis: 144 were assigned to cognitive therapy plus monitoring of mental state and 144 to monitoring of mental state only. Participants were followed-up for a minimum of 12 months and a maximum of 24 months.<p></p> <b>Intervention:</b> Cognitive therapy (up to 26 (mean 9.1) sessions over six months) plus monitoring of mental state compared with monitoring of mental state only.<p></p> <b>Main outcome measures:</b> Primary outcome was scores on the comprehensive assessment of at risk mental states (CAARMS), which provides a dichotomous transition to psychosis score and ordinal scores for severity of psychotic symptoms and distress. Secondary outcomes included emotional dysfunction and quality of life.<p></p> <b>Results:</b> Transition to psychosis based on intention to treat was analysed using discrete time survival models. Overall, the prevalence of transition was lower than expected (23/288; 8%), with no significant difference between the two groups (proportional odds ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.68). Changes in severity of symptoms and distress, as well as secondary outcomes, were analysed using random effects regression (analysis of covariance) adjusted for site and baseline symptoms. Distress from psychotic symptoms did not differ (estimated difference at 12 months −3.00, 95% confidence interval −6.95 to 0.94) but their severity was significantly reduced in the group assigned to cognitive therapy (estimated between group effect size at 12 months −3.67, −6.71 to −0.64, P=0.018).<p></p> <b>Conclusions:</b> Cognitive therapy plus monitoring did not significantly reduce transition to psychosis or symptom related distress but reduced the severity of psychotic symptoms in young people at high risk. Most participants in both groups improved over time. The results have important implications for the at risk mental state concept.<p></p>

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Gumley, Professor Andrew
Authors: Morrison, A. P., French, P., Stewart, S. L.K., Birchwood, M., Fowler, D., Gumley, A. I., Jones, P. B., Bentall, R. P., Lewis, S. W., Murray, G. K., Patterson, P., Brunet, K., Conroy, J., Parker, S., Reilly, T., Byrne, R., Davies, L. M., and Dunn, G.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > Mental Health and Wellbeing
Journal Name:British Medical Journal
Journal Abbr.:BMJ
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN (Online):0959-535X
Published Online:05 April 2012
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2012 The Authors
First Published:First published in British Medical Journal 344:e2233
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under Creative Commons License
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
423761Early detection and psychological intervention for individuals at high risk of psychosisAndrew GumleyMedical Research Council (MRC)G0500264/73571Mental Health and Wellbeing