Adenosine receptor ligands protect against a combination of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in cerebellar granule neurons

Fatokun, A.A., Stone, T.W. and Smith, R.A. (2008) Adenosine receptor ligands protect against a combination of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in cerebellar granule neurons. Experimental Brain Research, 186(1), pp. 151-160. (doi: 10.1007/s00221-007-1218-3)

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Agonists at A<sub>1</sub> receptors and antagonists at A<sub>2A</sub> receptors are known to be neuroprotective against excitotoxicity. We set out to clarify the mechanisms involved by studying interactions between adenosine receptor ligands and endogenous glutamate in cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Glutamate and the selective agonist <i>N</i>-methyl-<sub>D</sub>-aspartate (NMDA), applied to CGNs at 9 div (days in vitro), both induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner, which was attenuated by treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonists dizocilpine, <sub>D</sub>-2-amino-5-phosphono-pentanoic acid (<i>D</i>-AP5) or kynurenic acid (KYA), but not by the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Glutamate toxicity was reduced in the presence of all of the following: cyclosporin A (CsA), a blocker of the membrane permeability transition pore, the caspase-3 inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (Z-DEVD-fmk), the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) inhibitor 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl)butoxyl]-1(2<i>H</i>)-isoquinolinone (DPQ), and nicotinamide. This is indicative of involvement of both apoptotic and necrotic processes. The A<sub>1</sub> receptor agonist, <i>N</i> <sup>6</sup>-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), and the A<sub>2A</sub> receptor antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-[2-furyl][1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazo-5-yl-amino]ethyl)phenol (ZM241385) afforded significant protection, while the A<sub>1</sub> receptor blocker 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) and the A<sub>2A</sub> receptor agonist 2-<i>p</i>-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-<i>N</i>-N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine (CGS21680) had no effect. These results confirm that glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in CGNs is mainly via the NMDA receptor, but show that a form of cell death which exhibits aspects of both apoptosis and necrosis is involved. The protective activity of A<sub>1</sub> receptor activation or A<sub>2A</sub> receptor blockade occurs against this mixed profile of cell death, and appears not to involve the selective inhibition of classical apoptotic or necrotic cascades

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Stone, Professor Trevor and Smith, Professor Robert
Authors: Fatokun, A.A., Stone, T.W., and Smith, R.A.
Subjects:Q Science > QP Physiology
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Psychology & Neuroscience
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Life Sciences
Journal Name:Experimental Brain Research

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