Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma b-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans

Garcia, A.L. , Koebnick, C., Dagnelie, P.C., Strassner, C., Elmadfa, I., Katz, N., Leitzmann, C. and Hoffmann, I. (2008) Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma b-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans. British Journal of Nutrition, 99(6), pp. 1293-1300. (doi:10.1017/S0007114507868486)

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Abstract

Dietary carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases. Raw food diets are predominantly plant-based diets that are practised with the intention of preventing chronic diseases by virtue of their high content of beneficial nutritive substances such as carotenoids. However, the benefit of a long-term adherence to these diets is controversial since little is known about their adequacy. Therefore, we investigated vitamin A and carotenoid status and related food sources in raw food diet adherents in Germany. Dietary vitamin A, carotenoid intake, plasma retinol and plasma carotenoids were determined in 198 (ninety-two male and 106 female) strict raw food diet adherents in a cross-sectional study. Raw food diet adherents consumed on average 95 weight% of their total food intake as raw food (approximately 1800 g/d), mainly fruits. Raw food diet adherents had an intake of 1301 retinol activity equivalents/d and 16·7 mg/d carotenoids. Plasma vitamin A status was normal in 82% of the subjects ($1·05mmol/l) and 63% had b-carotene concentrations associated with chronic disease prevention ($0·88 mmol/l). In 77% of subjects the lycopene status was below the reference values for average healthy populations (,0·45mmol/l). Fat contained in fruits, vegetables and nuts and oil consumption was a significant dietary determinant of plasma carotenoid concentrations (b-carotene r 0·284; P,0·05; lycopene r 0·168; P¼0·024). Long-term raw food diet adherents showed normal vitamin A status and achieve favourable plasma b-carotene concentrations as recommended for chronic disease prevention, but showed low plasma lycopene levels. Plasma carotenoids in raw food adherents are predicted mainly by fat intake.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Garcia, Dr Ada
Authors: Garcia, A.L., Koebnick, C., Dagnelie, P.C., Strassner, C., Elmadfa, I., Katz, N., Leitzmann, C., and Hoffmann, I.
Subjects:Q Science > QP Physiology
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing > Clinical Specialities
Journal Name:British Journal of Nutrition
Journal Abbr.:Brit. J. Nutr.
Publisher:Cambridge University Press
ISSN:0007-1145
ISSN (Online):1475-2662
Published Online:21 November 2007
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2007 The Authors
First Published:First published in British Journal of Nutrition 99(6):1293-1300
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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