GWTC-2.1: Deep extended catalog of compact binary coalescences observed by LIGO and Virgo during the first half of the third observing run

Abbott, R. et al. (2024) GWTC-2.1: Deep extended catalog of compact binary coalescences observed by LIGO and Virgo during the first half of the third observing run. Physical Review D, 109(2), 022001. (doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.109.022001)

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The second Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog, GWTC-2, reported on 39 compact binary coalescences observed by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors between 1 April 2019 15:00 UTC and 1 October 2019 15:00 UTC. Here, we present GWTC-2.1, which reports on a deeper list of candidate events observed over the same period. We analyze the final version of the strain data over this period with improved calibration and better subtraction of excess noise, which has been publicly released. We employ three matched-filter search pipelines for candidate identification, and estimate the probability of astrophysical origin for each candidate event. While GWTC-2 used a false alarm rate threshold of 2 per year, we include in GWTC-2.1, 1201 candidates that pass a false alarm rate threshold of 2 per day. We calculate the source properties of a subset of 44 high-significance candidates that have a probability of astrophysical origin greater than 0.5. Of these candidates, 36 have been reported in GWTC-2. We also calculate updated source properties for all binary block hole events previously reported in GWTC-1. If the 8 additional high-significance candidates presented here are astrophysical, the mass range of events that are unambiguously identified as binary black holes (both objects \geq 3M_\odot) is increased compared to GWTC-2, with total masses from \sim 14M_\odot for GW190924_021846 to \sim 182M_\odot for GW190426_190642. Source properties calculated using our default prior suggest that the primary components of two new candidate events (GW190403_051519 and GW190426_190642) fall in the mass gap predicted by pair-instability supernova theory. We also expand the population of binaries with significantly asymmetric mass ratios reported in GWTC-2 by an additional two events (the mass ratio is less than 0.65 and 0.44 at 90% probability for GW190403_051519 and GW190917_114630 respectively), and find that 2 of the 8 new events have effective inspiral spins \chi_\mathrm{eff} > 0 (at 90\% credibility), while no binary is consistent with \chi_\mathrm{eff} \lt 0 at the same significance. We provide updated estimates for rates of binary black hole and binary neutron star coalescence in the local Universe.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This material is based upon work supported by NSF’s LIGO Laboratory which is a major facility fully funded by the National Science Foundation. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresid`encia i Conselleria d’Innovació, Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d’Innovació, Universitats, Ci`encia i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain, the National Science Centre of Poland and the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP), the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS), Actions de Recherche Concert´ees (ARC) and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek—Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium, the Paris Îlede-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH), the National Research Foundation of Korea, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovations, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan, the United States Department of Energy, and the Kavli Foundation.
Keywords:Gravitational wave sources, Gravitational waves, Astronomical black holes, Binary stars, Neutron stars, pulsars
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Grant, Mr Alastair and Spencer, Dr Andrew and Messenger, Dr Christopher and Masso Reid, Ms Mariela and Williams, Dr Daniel and Toland, Dr Karl and Hayes, Dr Fergus and Hammond, Professor Giles and Barr, Dr Bryan and Cummings, Ms Rebecca and Oelker, Dr Eric and Veitch, Dr John and Linley, Mr Jethro and Heng, Professor Ik Siong and Dupej, Peter and Tait, Dr Simon and Briggs, Mr Joseph and Webster, Dr Stephen and Kinley-Hanlon, Miss Maya and Hendry, Professor Martin and Scott, Dr Jamie and Rowan, Professor Sheila and Martin, Dr Iain and Robertson, Professor Norna and Cumming, Dr Alan and Gabbard, Mr Hunter and Berry, Dr Christopher and Cunningham, Dr Liam and Williams, Mr Michael and Gray, Dr Rachel and Woan, Professor Graham and Datrier, Ms Laurence and Hough, Professor James and McGhee, Mr Graeme and Huttner, Dr Sabina and Callaghan, Mr Jack and Bayley, Mr Joseph and Strain, Professor Kenneth and Eddolls, Graeme and Jones, Mr Russell and De Lillo, Nicola and Haughian, Dr Karen and Murray, Dr Peter and Barton, Dr Mark
Authors: Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, C., Adhikari, N., Adhikari, R. X., Adya, V. B., Affeldt, C., Agarwal, D., Agathos, M., Agatsuma, K., Aggarwal, N., Aguiar, O. D., Aiello, L., Ain, A., Ajith, P., Albanesi, S., Allocca, A., Altin, P. A., Amato, A., Anand, C., Anand, S., Ananyeva, A., Anderson, S. B., Anderson, W. G., Andrade, T., Andres, N., Andriifmmode celse ćfi, T., Angelova, S. V., Ansoldi, S., Antelis, J. M., Antier, S., Appert, S., Arai, K., Araya, M. C., Areeda, J. S., Arène, M., Arnaud, N., Aronson, S. M., Arun, K. G., Asali, Y., Ashton, G., Assiduo, M., Aston, S. M., Astone, P., Aubin, F., Austin, C., Babak, S., Badaracco, F., Bader, M. K. M., Badger, C., Bae, S., Baer, A. M., Bagnasco, S., Bai, Y., Baird, J., Ball, M., Ballardin, G., Ballmer, S. W., Balsamo, A., Baltus, G., Banagiri, S., Bankar, D., Barayoga, J. C., Barbieri, C., Barish, B. C., Barker, D., Barneo, P., Barone, F., Barr, B., Barsotti, L., Barsuglia, M., Barta, D., Bartlett, J., Barton, M.A., Bartos, I., Bassiri, R., Basti, A., Bawaj, M., Bayley, J.C., Baylor, A. C., Bazzan, M., Bécsy, B., Bedakihale, V. M., Bejger, M., Belahcene, I., Benedetto, V., Beniwal, D., Bennett, T. F., Bentley, J. D., BenYaala, M., Bergamin, F., Berger, B. K., Bernuzzi, S., Berry, C.P.L., Bersanetti, D., Bertolini, A., Betzwieser, J., Beveridge, D., Bhandare, R., Bhardwaj, U., Bhattacharjee, D., Bhaumik, S., Bilenko, I. A., Billingsley, G., Bini, S., Birney, R., Birnholtz, O., Biscans, S., Bischi, M., Biscoveanu, S., Bisht, A., Biswas, B., Bitossi, M., Bizouard, M.-A., Blackburn, J. K., Blair, C. D., Blair, D. G., Blair, R. M., Bobba, F., Bode, N., Boer, M., Bogaert, G., Boldrini, M., Bonavena, L. D., Bondu, F., Bonilla, E., Bonnand, R., Booker, P., Boom, B. A., Bork, R., Boschi, V., Bose, N., Bose, S., Bossilkov, V., Boudart, V., Bouffanais, Y., Bozzi, A., Bradaschia, C., Brady, P. R., Bramley, A., Branch, A., Branchesi, M., Brau, J. E., Breschi, M., Briant, T., Briggs, J.H., Brillet, A., Brinkmann, M., Brockill, P., Brooks, A. F., Brooks, J., Brown, D. D., Brunett, S., Bruno, G., Bruntz, R., Bryant, J., Bulik, T., Bulten, H. J., Buonanno, A., Buscicchio, R., Buskulic, D., Buy, C., Byer, R. L., Cadonati, L., Cagnoli, G., Cahillane, C., Bustillo, J. C., Callaghan, J.D., Callister, T. A., Calloni, E., Cameron, J., Camp, J. B., Canepa, M., Canevarolo, S., Cannavacciuolo, M., Cannon, K. C., Cao, H., Capote, E., Carapella, G., Carbognani, F., Carlin, J. B., Carney, M. F., Carpinelli, M., Carrillo, G., Carullo, G., Carver, T. L., Diaz, J. C., Casentini, C., Castaldi, G., Caudill, S., Cavaglià, M., Cavalier, F., Cavalieri, R., Ceasar, M., Cella, G., Cerdá-Durán, P., Cesarini, E., Chaibi, W., Chakravarti, K., Subrahmanya, S. C., Champion, E., Chan, C.-H., Chan, C., Chan, C. L., Chan, K., Chandra, K., Chanial, P., Chao, S., Charlton, P., Chase, E. A., Chassande-Mottin, E., Chatterjee, C., Chatterjee, D., Chatterjee, D., Chattopadhyay, D., Chaturvedi, M., Chaty, S., Chatziioannou, K., Chen, H. Y., Chen, J., Chen, X., Chen, Y., Chen, Z., Cheng, H., Cheong, C. K., Cheung, H. Y., Chia, H. Y., Chiadini, F., Chiarini, G., Chierici, R., Chincarini, A., Chiofalo, M. L., Chiummo, A., Cho, G., Cho, H. S., Choudhary, R. K., Choudhary, S., Christensen, N., Chu, Q., Chua, S., Chung, K. W., Ciani, G., Ciecielag, P., Cieifmmode selse śfilar, M., Cifaldi, M., Ciobanu, A. A., Ciolfi, R., Cipriano, F., Cirone, A., Clara, F., Clark, E. N., Clark, J. A., Clarke, L., Clearwater, P., Clesse, S., Cleva, F., Coccia, E., Codazzo, E., Cohadon, P.-F., Cohen, D. E., Cohen, L., Colleoni, M., Collette, C. G., Colombo, A., Colpi, M., Compton, C. M., Constancio, M., Conti, L., Cooper, S. J., Corban, P., Corbitt, T. 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Subjects:Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering
University Services > Student and Academic Services > Academic Services
Research Centre:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy > Institute for Gravitational Research
Research Group:Institute for Gravitational Research
Journal Name:Physical Review D
Journal Abbr.:Phys. Rev. D
Publisher:American Physical Society
ISSN (Online):2470-0029
Published Online:05 January 2024
Copyright Holders:Copyright: © 2024 American Physical Society
First Published:First published in Physical Review D 109(2): 022001
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
309290Advanced LIGO Operations SupportKenneth StrainScience and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/V001019/1P&S - Physics & Astronomy
312546Investigations in Gravitational RadiationSheila RowanScience and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/V005634/1ENG - Electronics & Nanoscale Engineering