Saddle slow manifolds and canard orbits in R4 and application to the full Hodgkin–Huxley model

Hasan, C. R. , Krauskopf, B. and Osinga, H. M. (2018) Saddle slow manifolds and canard orbits in R4 and application to the full Hodgkin–Huxley model. Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience, 8(1), 5. (doi: 10.1186/s13408-018-0060-1) (PMID:29675585) (PMCID:PMC5908812)

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Many physiological phenomena have the property that some variables evolve much faster than others. For example, neuron models typically involve observable differences in time scales. The Hodgkin–Huxley model is well known for explaining the ionic mechanism that generates the action potential in the squid giant axon. Rubin and Wechselberger (Biol. Cybern. 97:5–32, 2007) nondimensionalized this model and obtained a singularly perturbed system with two fast, two slow variables, and an explicit time-scale ratio ε. The dynamics of this system are complex and feature periodic orbits with a series of action potentials separated by small-amplitude oscillations (SAOs); also referred to as mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs). The slow dynamics of this system are organized by two-dimensional locally invariant manifolds called slow manifolds which can be either attracting or of saddle type. In this paper, we introduce a general approach for computing two-dimensional saddle slow manifolds and their stable and unstable fast manifolds. We also develop a technique for detecting and continuing associated canard orbits, which arise from the interaction between attracting and saddle slow manifolds, and provide a mechanism for the organization of SAOs in R4. We first test our approach with an extended four-dimensional normal form of a folded node. Our results demonstrate that our computations give reliable approximations of slow manifolds and canard orbits of this model. Our computational approach is then utilized to investigate the role of saddle slow manifolds and associated canard orbits of the full Hodgkin–Huxley model in organizing MMOs and determining the firing rates of action potentials. For ε sufficiently large, canard orbits are arranged in pairs of twin canard orbits with the same number of SAOs. We illustrate how twin canard orbits partition the attracting slow manifold into a number of ribbons that play the role of sectors of rotations. The upshot is that we are able to unravel the geometry of slow manifolds and associated canard orbits without the need to reduce the model.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Hasan, Dr Cris
Authors: Hasan, C. R., Krauskopf, B., and Osinga, H. M.
College/School:College of Social Sciences > Adam Smith Business School
Journal Name:Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
ISSN (Online):2190-8567
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The Authors
First Published:First published in Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience 8(1):5
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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