Review article: the complex interplay between diet and Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel disease

Faqerah, N., Walker, D. and Gerasimidis, K. (2023) Review article: the complex interplay between diet and Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 58(10), pp. 984-1004. (doi: 10.1111/apt.17720) (PMID:37771255)

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Background: Although no causative microbe has been yet identified or successfully targeted in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the role of Escherichia coli in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease has attracted considerable interest. Aim: In this review, we present a literature overview of the interactions between diet and E. coli and other Proteobacteria in the aetiology, outcomes and management of IBD and suggest future research directions. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed to identify in vitro studies and research in animal models that explored mechanisms by which dietary components can interact with E. coli or Proteobacteria to initiate or propagate gut inflammation. We also explored the effect diet and dietary therapies have on the levels of E. coli or Proteobacteria in patients with IBD. Results: Preclinical data suggest that the Western diet and its components influence the abundance, colonisation and phenotypic behaviour of E. coli in the gut, which may in turn initiate or contribute to gut inflammation. In contrast, the Mediterranean diet and specific dietary fibres may abrogate these effects and protect from inflammation. There are limited data from clinical trials, mostly from patients with Crohn's disease during treatment with exclusive enteral nutrition, with findings often challenging observations from preclinical research. Data from patients with ulcerative colitis are sparse. Conclusions: Preclinical and some clinical trial data suggest that E. coli and other Proteobacteria interact with certain dietary components to promote gut inflammation. Well-designed clinical trials are required before dietary recommendations for disease management can be made.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funding: the studentship of N. F. (Nojoud Faqerah) is funded by Saudi Arabia Ministry of higher education.
Keywords:Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, adherent-invasive Escherichia coli, diet, dietary triggers, exclusive enteral nutrition.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Walker, Professor Daniel and Faqerah, Nojoud Adnan H and Gerasimidis, Professor Konstantinos
Authors: Faqerah, N., Walker, D., and Gerasimidis, K.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
ISSN (Online):1365-2036
Published Online:28 September 2023
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2023 The Authors
First Published:First published in Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 58(10): 984-1004
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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