The RNA cap methyltransferases RNMT and CMTR1 co-ordinate gene expression during neural differentiation

Liang, S., Almohammed, R. and Cowling, V. H. (2023) The RNA cap methyltransferases RNMT and CMTR1 co-ordinate gene expression during neural differentiation. Biochemical Society Transactions, (doi: 10.1042/BST20221154) (PMID:37145036) (Early Online Publication)

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Regulation of RNA cap formation has potent impacts on gene regulation, controlling which transcripts are expressed, processed and translated into protein. Recently, the RNA cap methyltransferases RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase (RNMT) and cap-specific mRNA (nucleoside-2'-O-)-methyltransferase 1 (CMTR1) have been found to be independently regulated during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation controlling the expression of overlapping and distinct protein families. During neural differentiation, RNMT is repressed and CMTR1 is up-regulated. RNMT promotes expression of the pluripotency-associated gene products; repression of the RNMT complex (RNMT–RAM) is required for repression of these RNAs and proteins during differentiation. The predominant RNA targets of CMTR1 encode the histones and ribosomal proteins (RPs). CMTR1 up-regulation is required to maintain the expression of histones and RPs during differentiation and to maintain DNA replication, RNA translation and cell proliferation. Thus the co-ordinate regulation of RNMT and CMTR1 is required for different aspects of ES cell differentiation. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which RNMT and CMTR1 are independently regulated during ES cell differentiation and explore how this influences the co-ordinated gene regulation required of emerging cell lineages.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was supported by Cancer Research UK core funding to the CRUK Beatson Institute (A31287), a Wellcome Trust Investigator Award (219416/Z/19/Z) to V.H.C. and a China Scholarship Council award to S.L.
Status:Early Online Publication
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cowling, Professor Victoria and Liang, Miss Shang
Authors: Liang, S., Almohammed, R., and Cowling, V. H.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cancer Sciences
Journal Name:Biochemical Society Transactions
Publisher:Portland Press
ISSN (Online):1470-8752
Published Online:05 May 2023
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2023 The Authors
First Published:First published in Biochemical Society Transactions 2023
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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