Tuberculosis diagnosis cascade in Blantyre, Malawi: a prospective cohort study

Feasey, H. R.A. et al. (2021) Tuberculosis diagnosis cascade in Blantyre, Malawi: a prospective cohort study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 21, 178. (doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-05860-y) (PMID:33588804) (PMCID:PMC7883960)

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Background: Tuberculosis (TB) control relies on early diagnosis and treatment. International guidelines recommend systematic TB screening at health facilities, but implementation is challenging. We investigated completion of recommended TB screening steps in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods: A prospective cohort recruited adult outpatients attending Bangwe primary clinic. Entry interviews were linked to exit interviews. The proportion of participants progressing through each step of the diagnostic pathway were estimated. Factors associated with request for sputum were investigated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 5442 clinic attendances 2397 (44%) had exit interviews. In clinically indicated participants (n = 445) 256 (57.5%) were asked about cough, 36 (8.1%) were asked for sputum, 21 (4.7%) gave sputum and 1 (0.2%) received same-day results. Significant associations with request for sputum were: any TB symptom (aOR:3.20, 95%CI:2.02–5.06), increasing age (aOR:1.02, 95%CI:1.01–1.04 per year) and for HIV-negative participants only, a history of previous TB (aOR:3.37, 95%CI:1.45–7.81). Numbers requiring sputum tests (26/day) outnumbered diagnostic capacity (8–12/day). Conclusions: Patients were lost at every stage of the TB care cascade, with same day sputum submission following all steps of the diagnosis cascade achieved in only 4.7% if clinically indicated. Infection control strategies should be implemented, with reporting on early steps of the TB care cascade formalised. High-throughput screening interventions, such as digital CXR, that can achieve same-day TB diagnosis are urgently needed to meet WHO End TB goals.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:MacPherson, Professor Peter
Authors: Feasey, H. R.A., Corbett, E. L., Nilwasa, M., Mair, L., Divala, T. H., Kamchedzera, W., Khundi, M. E., Burchett, H. E.D., Webb, E. L., Maheswaran, H., Squire, S. B., and MacPherson, P.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > Public Health
Journal Name:BMC Infectious Diseases
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN (Online):1471-2334
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in BMC Infectious Diseases 21: 178
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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