Dietary weight-management for type 2 diabetes remissions in South Asians: the South Asian diabetes remission randomised trial for proof-of-concept and feasibility (STANDby)

Sattar, N. , Welsh, P. , Leslie, W. S., Thom, G. , McCombie, L., Brosnahan, N. , Richardson, J., Gill, J. M. R. , Crawford, L. and Lean, M. E. J. (2023) Dietary weight-management for type 2 diabetes remissions in South Asians: the South Asian diabetes remission randomised trial for proof-of-concept and feasibility (STANDby). Lancet Regional Health – Southeast Asia, 9, 100111. (doi: 10.1016/j.lansea.2022.100111) (PMID:36777452) (PMCID:PMC9904218)

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Background: We aimed to assess whether a structured weight management programme incorporating a total diet replacement (TDR) (3–5 months ∼850 kcal/day formula diet) weight loss phase is acceptable to people of South Asian ethnicity and can achieve type 2 diabetes (T2D) remissions similarly to other populations. Methods: Adults of South Asian ethnicity, aged 18–65 years, with T2D for ≤4 years, and BMI 25–45 kg/m2 were recruited from primary care and social media, and randomised to commence TDR either immediately (iTDR), or delayed (dTDR) for 3–5 months as a usual care control arm during this period. Intervention effects were tested in randomised comparisons powered to detect significant weight loss, and in an expanded observational analysis to determine remission effect size, including both iTDR and dTDR groups. Acceptability in those recruited was explored by questionnaire and weight change. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN10720065. Date of Registration 27/09/2017. Findings: Twenty-five eligible individuals were recruited. Mean baseline (SD) age was 45.8 (11.1) years, weight 88.2 (13.7) kg, BMI 32.1 (3.8) kg/m2, HbA1c 60.4 (11.3) mmol/mol, liver fat by MRI 15.6 (9.4)%. In the RCT, mean(SD) weight change after TDR was −7.7 (7.2)% in the intervention group (n = 13), and −1.2 (1.4)% in the usual-care control group (n = 12) (p = 0.005), with T2D remission achieved by 5/13, compared to 0/12 respectively (p = 0.039). In the observational study, 23/25 started TDR and 19/23 participants completed the TDR phase. Median time spent in TDR was 105 days (IQR 77–134 days). T2D remission was achieved in 10/23 (43%), and weight changes were concordant with the RCT. Overall, 8/23 (35%) lost over 10% bodyweight. Absolute liver fat proportion near halved from 15.3% at the start of TDR to 8.6% (p < 0.001). Interpretation: In UK-based South Asians, TDR-led weight loss and T2D remission rates are comparable to those observed in white cohorts, and the intervention was acceptable in most of those recruited. There is potential to further improve outcomes, but one-third lost >10% body weight, and the mechanism underpinning T2D remission appears similar, driven by weight change with loss of excess ectopic body-fat. Funding: We gratefully acknowledge funding for the MRI scans from the, Miss MJM Smith Trust (registered charity: SC040586). No other external funds were provided for this trial. NS is supported by the British Heart Foundation Research Excellence Award (RE/18/6/34217).

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:McCombie, Ms Louise and Brosnahan, Dr Naomi and Lean, Professor Michael and Gill, Professor Jason and Richardson, Mrs Janice and Welsh, Dr Paul and Thom, Dr George and Crawford, Mrs Luisa and Sattar, Professor Naveed and Leslie, Dr Wilma
Authors: Sattar, N., Welsh, P., Leslie, W. S., Thom, G., McCombie, L., Brosnahan, N., Richardson, J., Gill, J. M. R., Crawford, L., and Lean, M. E. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Health
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:Lancet Regional Health – Southeast Asia
Publisher:Lancet Publishing Group
ISSN (Online):2772-3682
Published Online:23 November 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in Lancet Regional Health – Southeast Asia 9: 100111
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
303944BHF Centre of ExcellenceColin BerryBritish Heart Foundation (BHF)RE/18/6/34217CAMS - Cardiovascular Science