Estimation of Hydrogen Consumption of an Intermodal Freight Locomotive Operating on a Scottish Highlands Based Test Route Using Inverse Simulation Techniques

McGirr, A., McGookin, E. , Thomson, D. , Murray-Smith, D. and Fisher, P. (2022) Estimation of Hydrogen Consumption of an Intermodal Freight Locomotive Operating on a Scottish Highlands Based Test Route Using Inverse Simulation Techniques. Fifth International Conference on Railway Technology (Railways 2022), Montpelier, France, 22-25 Aug 2022.

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This work offers an insight into both the theoretical possibility and practical challenges surrounding the use of hydrogen fuel cells to replace diesel-electric traction in the Class 66 , one of the most popular intermodal freight locomotives in use in the United Kingdom. Results are presented for a test route constructed from examination of some of the most challenging sections of the West Highland line in Scotland, where hydrogen-powered trains are considered most likely to operate. A conventional Class 66 model is used to represent the dynamics of the locomotive. Using this model within a forward simulation, a reference schedule in terms of distance travelled or speed versus time can be generated for a chosen section of the route for a given tractive force time history and train load. Initial trial values of powertrain components may then be chosen for the fuel-cell-based version of the locomotive, using an inverse simulation approach in which the previously generated reference schedule is applied as input. The output of the inverse simulation provides the time history of the necessary tractive force to meet the schedule. For a hypothetical fourteen-kilometer test route, a series of inverse simulation runs for different powertrain parameters suggests that a hydrogen fuel cell system based on fourteen 200kW fuel cells could meet the power requirements and consume 39.942 kg of hydrogen for the chosen route and train loading. Alternatively, a hybrid configuration with eight fuel cells and five 60 kWh batteries would also provide the required power level, with the added benefit of using less hydrogen comparatively (22.824 kg), assuming that the batteries were initially well charged and could be recharged using regenerative braking and power from the fuel-cell when not required entirely for traction. The mass of the fuel cell and the hybrid powertrain would be 12.25 and 16.25 tonnes, respectively, neglecting the relatively small mass associated with the power electronics. The conclusion reached on the basis of the simulation work and the associated modelling assumptions is that it would be possible to power the locomotive with fuel cells and batteries, and that the main problem lies in the general arrangement of the locomotive and especially the space required for storage of the hydrogen necessary for the complete journey.

Item Type:Conference or Workshop Item
Keywords:Hydrogen, battery, hybrid, inverse, simulation, modelling.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Murray-Smith, Professor David and McGirr, Mr Adam and Thomson, Dr Douglas and McGookin, Dr Euan
Authors: McGirr, A., McGookin, E., Thomson, D., Murray-Smith, D., and Fisher, P.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering
College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Autonomous Systems and Connectivity
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