Clinical phenotypes of depressed patients with evidence of inflammation and somatic symptoms

Foley, É. M., Parkinson, J. T. , Kappelmann, N. and Khandaker, G. M. (2021) Clinical phenotypes of depressed patients with evidence of inflammation and somatic symptoms. Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology, 8, 100079. (doi: 10.1016/j.cpnec.2021.100079) (PMID:34729541) (PMCID:PMC7611902)

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Whether depressed patients with evidence of inflammation are more appropriate candidates for immunotherapies is being tested in several clinical trials, which are selecting patients based on elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammation-related symptoms. However, studies of the clinical and phenotypic profile of depressed patients with elevated CRP are relatively scarce. We have investigated detailed clinical characteristics of 84 depressed patients, grouped as those with (CRP≥3 mg/L) and without (CRP<3 mg/L) inflammation. All patients met the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision criteria for current depressive episode and had somatic symptoms of depression. We report that depressed patients with inflammation are more likely to be older (P=0.04), have higher body mass index (P<0.01), and be on non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (P=0.04). After adjusting for potential confounders, the inflammation group had higher depression severity (adjusted mean difference, 8.82; 95% CI, 3.91–13.72), somatic symptoms (adjusted mean difference, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.58–4.92), state anxiety (adjusted mean difference, 9.25; 95% CI, 3.82–14.67), perceived stress (adjusted mean difference, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.98–7.18), and fatigue (adjusted mean difference, 9.71; 95% CI, 3.09–6.33), but not anhedonia. The inflamed group also had poorer quality of life (adjusted mean difference, −0.18; 95% CI, −0.32–0.05). At individual depressive symptom level, the inflammation group had increased guilty feelings (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.28; 95% CI, 2.09–31.17), pessimism (adjusted OR, 5.38; 95% CI, 1.53–22.73), concentration difficulties (adjusted OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.32–19.02), and indecisiveness (adjusted OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.15–18.54). Our findings highlight the clinical features associated with inflammation in depressed patients with somatic symptoms, including poor quality of life, supporting the need for intervention targeting this group. These results could also aid patient and outcome selection in future clinical trials testing immunotherapies in depression. Replication of these findings in larger samples is required.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was funded by a Wellcome Trust fellowship to GMK (grant code: 201486/Z/16/Z). GMK also acknowledges funding support from Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust R & D Department (Grant code: G101481), the BMA Foundation (J Moulton grant 2019); the MQ: Transforming Mental Health (grant code: MQDS17/40); and the Medical Research Council UK (grant codes: MC_PC_17,213 and MR/S037675/1). The BMA Foundation J Moulton grant supports ÉMF and the MRC grant MC_PC_17,213 supports JTP. NK is supported by the International Max Planck Research School of Translational Psychiatry (IMPRS-TP).
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Parkinson, Dr Joel
Creator Roles:
Parkinson, J. T.Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Foley, É. M., Parkinson, J. T., Kappelmann, N., and Khandaker, G. M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity
Journal Name:Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology
ISSN (Online):2666-4976
Published Online:05 August 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology 8: 100079
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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