Inequalities in children’s exposure to alcohol outlets in Scotland: a GPS study

Caryl, F. M. , Pearce, J., Mitchell, R. and Shortt, N. K. (2022) Inequalities in children’s exposure to alcohol outlets in Scotland: a GPS study. BMC Public Health, 22, 1749. (doi: 10.1186/s12889-022-14151-3) (PMID:36109778) (PMCID:PMC9479265)

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Abstract

Background: Alcohol use is a leading cause of harm in young people and increases the risk of alcohol dependence in adulthood. Alcohol use is also a key driver of rising health inequalities. Quantifying inequalities in exposure to alcohol outlets within the activity spaces of pre-adolescent children—a vulnerable, formative development stage—may help understand alcohol use in later life. Methods: GPS data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 10-and-11-year-old children (n = 688, 55% female). The proportion of children, and the proportion of each child’s GPS, exposed to alcohol outlets was compared across area-level income-deprivation quintiles, along with the relative proportion of exposure occurring within 500 m of each child’s home and school. Results: Off-sales alcohol outlets accounted for 47% of children’s exposure, which was higher than expected given their availability (31% of alcohol outlets). The proportion of children exposed to alcohol outlets did not differ by area deprivation. However, the proportion of time children were exposed showed stark inequalities. Children living in the most deprived areas were almost five times more likely to be exposed to off-sales alcohol outlets than children in the least deprived areas (OR 4.83, 3.04–7.66; P < 0.001), and almost three times more likely to be exposed to on-sales alcohol outlets (OR 2.86, 1.11–7.43; P = 0.03). Children in deprived areas experienced 31% of their exposure to off-sales outlets within 500 m of their homes compared to 7% for children from less deprived areas. Children from all areas received 22—32% of their exposure within 500 m of schools, but the proportion of this from off-sales outlets increased with area deprivation. Conclusions: Children have little control over what they are exposed to, so policies that reduce inequities in alcohol availability should be prioritised to ensure that all children have the opportunity to lead healthy lives.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funding: FC is supported by a Medical Research Council Skills Development Fellowship [MR/T027789/1]. FC and RM are members of the Places and Health Programme supported by the MRC (MC_UU_00022/4) and the Chief Scientist Ofce (SPHSU19).
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Mitchell, Professor Rich and Caryl, Dr Fiona
Authors: Caryl, F. M., Pearce, J., Mitchell, R., and Shortt, N. K.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > MRC/CSO SPHSU
Journal Name:BMC Public Health
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1471-2458
ISSN (Online):1471-2458
Published Online:15 September 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © The Author(s) 2022
First Published:First published in BMC Public Health 22: 1749
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons license

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
308037Do gender-differences in access to urban landscapes lead to gender-inequalities in mental and physical health?Fiona CarylMedical Research Council (MRC)MR/T027789/1HW - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit
3048231Places and healthRich MitchellMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_00022/4HW - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit
3048231Places and healthRich MitchellOffice of the Chief Scientific Adviser (CSO)SPHSU19HW - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit