Fluid-structure interaction simulation of calcified aortic valve stenosis

Cai, L., Hao, Y., Ma, P., Zhu, G., Luo, X. and Gao, H. (2022) Fluid-structure interaction simulation of calcified aortic valve stenosis. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 19(12), pp. 13172-13192. (doi: 10.3934/mbe.2022616)

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Calcified aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is caused by calcium buildup and tissue thickening that impede the blood flow from left ventricle (LV) to aorta. In recent years, CAVS has become one of the most common cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to study the mechanics of aortic valve (AV) caused by calcification. In this paper, based on a previous idealized AV model, the hybrid immersed boundary/finite element method (IB/FE) is used to study AV dynamics and hemodynamic performance under normal and calcified conditions. The computational CAVS model is realized by dividing the AV leaflets into a calcified region and a healthy region, and each is described by a specific constitutive equation. Our results show that calcification can significantly affect AV dynamics. For example, the elasticity and mobility of the leaflets decrease due to calcification, leading to a smaller opening area with a high forward jet flow across the valve. The calcified valve also experiences an increase in local stress and strain. The increased loading due to AV stenosis further leads to a significant increase in left ventricular energy loss and transvalvular pressure gradients. The model predicted hemodynamic parameters are in general consistent with the risk classification of AV stenosis in the clinic. Therefore, mathematical models of AV with calcification have the potential to deepen our understanding of AV stenosis-induced ventricular dysfunction and facilitate the development of computational engineering-assisted medical diagnosis in AV related diseases.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11871399) and the UK EPSRC (EP/S030875, EP/S014284/1, EP/S020950/1, EP/R511705/1, EP/T017899/1), which are gratefully acknowledged.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Luo, Professor Xiaoyu and Gao, Dr Hao
Authors: Cai, L., Hao, Y., Ma, P., Zhu, G., Luo, X., and Gao, H.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Mathematics and Statistics > Mathematics
Journal Name:Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering
Publisher:American Institute of Mathematical Sciences
ISSN (Online):1551-0018
Published Online:08 September 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering 19(12):13172-13192
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
303232EPSRC Centre for Multiscale soft tissue mechanics with MIT and POLIMI (SofTMech-MP)Xiaoyu LuoEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/S030875/1M&S - Mathematics
303231A whole-heart model of multiscale soft tissue mechanics and fluid structureinteraction for clinical applications (Whole-Heart-FSI)Xiaoyu LuoEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/S020950/1M&S - Mathematics
300137Impact Acceleration Account - University of Glasgow 2017Jonathan CooperEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/R511705/1Research and Innovation Services
308255The SofTMech Statistical Emulation and Translation HubDirk HusmeierEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/T017899/1M&S - Statistics