Development, feasibility and potential effectiveness of community-based continuous mass dog vaccination delivery strategies: Lessons for optimization and replication

Duamor, C. T., Hampson, K. , Lankester, F., Lugelo, A., Mpolya, E., Kreppel, K., Cleaveland, S. and Wyke, S. (2022) Development, feasibility and potential effectiveness of community-based continuous mass dog vaccination delivery strategies: Lessons for optimization and replication. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16(9), e0010318. (doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0010318) (PMID:36067231) (PMCID:PMC9481168)

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Abstract

Objectives: Dog vaccination can eliminate rabies in dogs, but annual delivery strategies do not sustain vaccination coverage between campaigns. We describe the development of a community-based continuous mass dog vaccination (CBC-MDV) approach designed to improve and maintain vaccination coverage in Tanzania and examine the feasibility of delivering this approach as well as lessons for its optimization. Methods: We developed three delivery strategies of CBC-MDV and tested them against the current annual vaccination strategy following the UK Medical Research Council’s guidance: i) developing an evidence-based theoretical framework of intervention pathways and ii) piloting to test feasibility and inform optimization. For our process evaluation of CBC-MDV we collected data using non-participant observations, meeting reports and implementation audits and in-depth interviews, as well as household surveys of vaccination coverage to assess potential effectiveness. We analyzed qualitative data thematically and quantitative data descriptively. Results: The final design included delivery by veterinary teams supported by village-level one health champions. In terms of feasibility, we found that less than half of CBC-MDV’s components were implemented as planned. Fidelity of delivery was influenced by the strategy design, implementer availability and appreciation of value intervention components, and local environmental and socioeconomic events (e.g. elections, funerals, school cycles). CBC-MDV activities decreased sharply after initial campaigns, partly due to lack of supervision. Community engagement and involvement was not strong. Nonetheless, the CBC-MDV approaches achieved vaccination coverage above the critical threshold (40%) all-year-round. CBC-MDV components such as identifying vaccinated dogs, which village members work as one health champions and how provision of continuous vaccination is implemented need further optimization prior to scale up. Interpretation: CBC-MDV is feasible to deliver and can achieve good vaccination coverage. Community involvement in the development of CBC-MDV, to better tailor components to contextual situations, and improved supervision of activities are likely to improve vaccination coverage in future.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Wyke, Professor Sally and Mpolya, Dr Emmanuel and Lankester, Dr Felix and Kreppel, Dr Katharina and Cleaveland, Professor Sarah and Lugelo, Dr Ahmed and Duamor, Mr Christian and Hampson, Professor Katie
Authors: Duamor, C. T., Hampson, K., Lankester, F., Lugelo, A., Mpolya, E., Kreppel, K., Cleaveland, S., and Wyke, S.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > Social Scientists working in Health and Wellbeing
Journal Name:PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1935-2727
ISSN (Online):1935-2735
Published Online:06 September 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 16(9):e0010318
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
301620The Science of Rabies EliminationKatie HampsonWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)207569/Z/17/ZInstitute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
173142African Science Partnership for Intervention Research Excellence (Afrique One-ASPIRE)Daniel HaydonWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)107753/B/15/ZInstitute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine