Effect of financial voucher incentives provided with UK stop smoking services on the cessation of smoking in pregnant women (CPIT III): pragmatic, multicentre, single blinded, phase 3, randomised controlled trial

Tappin, D. et al. (2022) Effect of financial voucher incentives provided with UK stop smoking services on the cessation of smoking in pregnant women (CPIT III): pragmatic, multicentre, single blinded, phase 3, randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 379, e071522. (doi: 10.1136/bmj-2022-071522) (PMID:36261162) (PMCID:PMC9580214)

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Abstract

Objective: To examine effectiveness, cost effectiveness, generalisability, and acceptability of financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy in addition to variously organised UK stop smoking services. Design: Pragmatic, multicentre, single blinded, phase 3, randomised controlled trial (Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial phase 3 (CPIT III)). Setting: Seven UK stop smoking services provided in primary and secondary care facilities in Scotland, Northern Ireland, and England. Participants: 944 pregnant women (age ≥16 years) who self-reported as being smokers (at least one cigarette in the past week) when asked at first maternity visit, less than 24 weeks’ gestation, and notified to the trial team by routine stop smoking services. Interventions: Participants in the control group were offered the standard stop smoking services, which includes the offer of counselling by specially trained workers using withdrawal orientated therapy and the offer of free nicotine replacement therapy. The intervention was the offer of usual support from the stop smoking services and the addition of up to £400 ($440; €455) of LoveToShop financial voucher incentives for engaging with current stop smoking services or to stop smoking, or both, during pregnancy. Main outcome measures: Self-reported smoking cessation in late pregnancy (between 34 and 38 weeks’ gestation) corroborated by saliva cotinine (and anabasine if using nicotine replacement products). Results were adjusted for age, smoking years, index of multiple deprivation, Fagerström score, before or after covid, and recruitment site. Secondary outcomes included point and continuous abstinence six months after expected date of delivery, engagement with stop smoking services, biochemically validated abstinence from smoking at four weeks after stop smoking date, birth weight of baby, cost effectiveness, generalisability documenting formats of stop smoking services, and acceptability to pregnant women and their carers. Results: From 9 January 2018 to 4 April 2020, of 4032 women screened by stop smoking services, 944 people were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=471) or the control group (n=470). Three people asked for their data to be removed. 126 (27%) of 471 participants stopped smoking from the intervention group and 58 (12%) of 470 from the control group (adjusted odds ratio 2.78 (1.94 to 3.97) P<0.001). Serious adverse events were miscarriages and other expected pregnancy events requiring hospital admission; all serious adverse events were unrelated to the intervention. Most people who stopped smoking from both groups relapsed after their baby was born. Conclusions: The offer of up to £400 of financial voucher incentives to stop smoking during pregnancy as an addition to current UK stop smoking services is highly effective. This bolt-on intervention supports new guidance from the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, which includes the addition of financial incentives to support pregnant women to stop smoking. Continuing incentives to 12 months after birth is being examined to prevent relapse. Trial registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN15236311.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funded by Cancer Research UK (C48006_A20863); Chief Scientist Office, Scottish Government (HIPS_16_1); HSC Public Health Agency Northern Ireland (NI; SM/R/22); Health and Social Care R&D Division NI Opportunity-Led Research Award (COM/5352/17); Chest Heart and Stroke Northern Ireland 2017_09; Scottish Cot Death Trust; Lullaby Trust 272.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Tappin, Professor David and Boyd, Dr Kathleen and Mcmeekin, Dr Nicola
Authors: Tappin, D., Sinclair, L., Kee, F., McFadden, M., Robinson-Smith, L., Mitchell, A., Keding, A., Watson, J., Watson, S., Dick, A., Torgerson, D., Hewitt, C., McKell, J., Hoddinott, P., Harris, F. M., Boyd, K. A., McMeekin, N., Ussher, M., and Bauld, L.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > Health Economics and Health Technology Assessment
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:British Medical Journal
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN:1759-2151
ISSN (Online):0959-8138
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in British Medical Journal 379: e071522
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
300299Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT): A phase III Randomised Controlled TrialCharlotte WrightCancer Research UK (CRUK)C48006/A20863Med - Child Health