Efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in type 2 diabetes mellitus Saudi patients as add-on to antidiabetic therapy: a prospective, open-label, observational study

Althobaiti, F. M. et al. (2022) Efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in type 2 diabetes mellitus Saudi patients as add-on to antidiabetic therapy: a prospective, open-label, observational study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(16), 4769. (doi: 10.3390/jcm11164769)

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Abstract

The Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) approved sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in 2018. The efficacy and safety of empagliflozin (EMPA) have been confirmed in the U.S., Europe, and Japan for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, analogous evidence is lacking for Saudi T2DM patients. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of EMPA in Saudi patients (n = 256) with T2DM. This is a 12-week prospective, open-label, observational study. Adult Saudi patients with T2DM who had not been treated with EMPA before enrolment were eligible. The exclusion criteria included T2DM patients less than 18 years of age, adults with type one diabetes, pregnant women, paediatric population. The results related to efficacy included a significant decrease in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (adjusted mean difference −0.93% [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.32, −1.54]), significant improvements in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (−2.28 mmol/L [95% CI −2.81, −1.75]), and a reduction in body weight (−0.874 kg [95% CI −4.36, −6.10]) following the administration of 25 mg of EMPA once daily as an add-on to ongoing antidiabetic therapy after 12 weeks. The primary safety endpoints were the change in the mean blood pressure (BP) values, which indicated significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BP (−3.85 mmHg [95% CI −6.81, −0.88] and −0.06 mmHg [95% CI −0.81, −0.88], respectively) and pulse rate (−1.18 [95% CI −0.79, −3.15]). In addition, kidney function was improved, with a significant reduction in the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) (−1.76 mg/g [95% CI −1.07, −34.25]) and a significant increase in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (3.54 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% CI 2.78, 9.87]). Furthermore, EMPA reduced aminotransferases (ALT) in a pattern (reduction in ALT > AST). The adjusted mean difference in the change in ALT was −2.36 U/L [95% CI −1.031, −3.69], while it was −1.26 U/L [95% CI −0.3811, −2.357] for AST and −1.98 U/L [95% CI −0.44, −3.49] for GGT. Moreover, in the EMPA group, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) significantly increased (0.29 mmol/L [95% CI 0.74, 0.15]), whereas a nonsignificant increase was seen in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI 0.19, 0.18]) along with a significant reduction in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (−0.43 mmol/L [95% CI −0.31, −1.17]). Empagliflozin once daily is an efficacious and tolerable strategy for treating Saudi patients with insufficiently controlled T2DM as an add-on to ongoing antidiabetic therapy.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Empagliflozin, safety, efficacy, Saudi patients, type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Alsanosi, Dr Safaa
Creator Roles:
Alsanosi, S. M.Formal analysis, Writing – original draft, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Althobaiti, F. M., Alsanosi, S. M., Falemban, A. H., Alzahrani, A. R., Fataha, S. A., Salih, S. O., Alrumaih, A. M., Alotaibi, K. N., Althobaiti, H. M., Al-Ghamdi, S. S., and Ayoub, N.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Health
Journal Name:Journal of Clinical Medicine
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:2077-0383
ISSN (Online):2077-0383
Published Online:16 August 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in Journal of Clinical Medicine 11(16): 4769
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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