A study on prescriptions contributing to the risk of high anticholinergic burden in adults with intellectual disabilities: retrospective record linkage study

Ward, L. , Cooper, S.-A. , Henderson, A. , Stanley, B. , Greenlaw, N., Pacitti, C. and Cairns, D. (2022) A study on prescriptions contributing to the risk of high anticholinergic burden in adults with intellectual disabilities: retrospective record linkage study. Annals of General Psychiatry, 21, 41. (doi: 10.1186/s12991-022-00418-x)

[img] Text
275395.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

876kB

Abstract

Background: People with intellectual disabilities may face a disproportionate risk of experiencing high anticholinergic burden, and its negative sequalae, from a range of medications, and at younger ages than the general population, but there has been little previous study. Our aim was to determine the source of anticholinergic burden from prescribed medication. Methods: Retrospective matched observational study using record linkage. Adults with (n = 4,305), and without (n = 12,915), intellectual disabilities matched by age-, sex- and neighbourhood deprivation. The main outcome measure was the prescription of long-term (approximately 12 months use) anticholinergic medications overall (classified according to the Anticholinergic Risk Scale [ARS]), by drug class, individual drugs, and polypharmacy. Results: Adults with n = 1,654 (38.4%), and without n = 3,047 (23.6%), intellectual disabilities were prescribed medications long-term with anticholinergic effects. Of those on such drugs, adults with intellectual disabilities were most likely to be on central nervous system (62.6%), gastrointestinal (46.7%), and cardiovascular (28.4%) medications. They were prescribed more central nervous system, gynaecological/urinary tract, musculoskeletal, and respiratory medications, and less cardiovascular, infection, and endocrine medications than their matched comparators. Regardless of age, sex, or neighbourhood deprivation, adults with intellectual disabilities had greater odds of being prescribed antipsychotics (OR = 5.37 [4.40–6.57], p < 0.001), antiepileptics (OR = 2.57 [2.22–2.99], p < 0.001), and anxiolytics/hypnotics (OR = 1.28 [1.06–1.56], p = 0.012). Compared to the general population, adults with intellectual disabilities were more likely to be exposed to overall anticholinergic polypharmacy (OR = 1.48 [1.33–1.66], p < 0.001), and to psychotropic polypharmacy (OR = 2.79 [2.41–3.23], p < 0.001). Conclusions: Adults with intellectual disabilities are exposed to a greater risk of having very high anticholinergic burden through polypharmacy from several classes of medications, which may be prescribed by several different prescribers. There is a need for evidence-based recommendations specifically about people with intellectual disabilities with multiple physical and mental ill-health conditions to optimise medication use, reduce inappropriate prescribing and adverse anticholinergic effects.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funding: The authors would like to acknowledge the fnancial support of the Baily Thomas Charitable Fund (Registered Charity Number 262334).
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cooper, Professor Sally-Ann and pacitti, christine and Stanley, Miss Bethany and Cairns, Professor Deborah and Ward, Dr Laura and Greenlaw, Miss Nicola and Henderson, Mrs Angela
Authors: Ward, L., Cooper, S.-A., Henderson, A., Stanley, B., Greenlaw, N., Pacitti, C., and Cairns, D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > Mental Health and Wellbeing
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > Robertson Centre
Journal Name:Annals of General Psychiatry
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1744-859X
ISSN (Online):1744-859X
Copyright Holders:Copyright © The Author(s) 2022
First Published:First published in Annals of General Psychiatry 21:41
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons license
Related URLs:

University Staff: Request a correction | Enlighten Editors: Update this record