A review on equine influenza from a human influenza perspective

Whitlock, F., Murcia, P. R. and Newton, J. R. (2022) A review on equine influenza from a human influenza perspective. Viruses, 14(6), 1312. (doi: 10.3390/v14061312) (PMID:35746783) (PMCID:PMC9229935)

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Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a main natural reservoir in wild birds. IAVs are highly contagious, continually evolve, and have a wide host range that includes various mammalian species including horses, pigs, and humans. Furthering our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and cross-species transmissions is therefore essential. This review focuses on what is known regarding equine influenza virus (EIV) virology, pathogenesis, immune responses, clinical aspects, epidemiology (including factors contributing to local, national, and international transmission), surveillance, and preventive measures such as vaccines. We compare EIV and human influenza viruses and discuss parallels that can be drawn between them. We highlight differences in evolutionary rates between EIV and human IAVs, their impact on antigenic drift, and vaccine strain updates. We also describe the approaches used for the control of equine influenza (EI), which originated from those used in the human field, including surveillance networks and virological analysis methods. Finally, as vaccination in both species remains the cornerstone of disease mitigation, vaccine technologies and vaccination strategies against influenza in horses and humans are compared and discussed.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Whitlock, Mrs Fleur and Murcia, Professor Pablo
Creator Roles:
Whitlock, F.Writing – original draft, Visualization
Murcia, P. R.Writing – review and editing, Supervision
Authors: Whitlock, F., Murcia, P. R., and Newton, J. R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity > Centre for Virus Research
Journal Name:Viruses
ISSN (Online):1999-4915
Published Online:15 June 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in Viruses 14(6): 1312
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
310129Genomic epidemiology of equine influenza virus in the United KingdomPablo MurciaBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/V002821/1III - Centre for Virus Research
309834TBCPablo MurciaBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/V004697/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
308097Identifying equine genes with anti-influenza activityPablo MurciaHorserace Betting Levy Board (HBLB)vet/prj/797III - Centre for Virus Research