All-sky, all-frequency directional search for persistent gravitational waves from Advanced LIGO’s and Advanced Virgo’s first three observing runs

Abbott, R. et al. (2022) All-sky, all-frequency directional search for persistent gravitational waves from Advanced LIGO’s and Advanced Virgo’s first three observing runs. Physical Review D, 105(12), 122001. (doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.105.122001)

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Abstract

We present the first results from an all-sky all-frequency (ASAF) search for an anisotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from the first three observing runs of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. Upper limit maps on broadband anisotropies of a persistent stochastic background were published for all observing runs of the LIGO-Virgo detectors. However, a broadband analysis is likely to miss narrowband signals as the signal-to-noise ratio of a narrowband signal can be significantly reduced when combined with detector output from other frequencies. Data folding and the computationally efficient analysis pipeline, PyStoch, enable us to perform the radiometer map-making at every frequency bin. We perform the search at 3072 HEALPix equal area pixels uniformly tiling the sky and in every frequency bin of width 1-32 Hz in the range 20-1726 Hz, except for bins that are likely to contain instrumental artefacts and hence are notched. We do not find any statistically significant evidence for the existence of narrowband gravitational-wave signals in the analyzed frequency bins. Therefore, we place 95\% confidence upper limits on the gravitational-wave strain for each pixel-frequency pair, the limits are in the range (0.030 - 9.6) \times10^{-24}. In addition, we outline a method to identify candidate pixel-frequency pairs that could be followed up by a more sensitive (and potentially computationally expensive) search, e.g., a matched-filtering-based analysis, to look for fainter nearly monochromatic coherent signals. The ASAF analysis is inherently independent of models describing any spectral or spatial distribution of power. We demonstrate that the ASAF results can be appropriately combined over frequencies and sky directions to successfully recover the broadband directional and isotropic results.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This material is based upon work supported by NSF's LIGO Laboratory which is a major facility fully funded by the National Science Foundation. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientfic Research (NWO), for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigacion (AEI), the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion and Ministerio de Universidades, the Conselleria de Fons Europeus, Universitat i Cultura and the Direccio General de Politica Universitaria i Recerca del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d'Innovacio, Universitats, Ciencia i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain, the National Science Centre of Poland and the European Union| European Regional Development Fund; Foundation for Polish Science (FNP), the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Social Funds (ESF), the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS), Actions de Recherche Concertees (ARC) and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek | Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium, the Paris ^Ile-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH), the National Research Foundation of Korea, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovations, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan, the United States Department of Energy, and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN and CNRS for provision of computational resources. This work was supported by MEXT, JSPS Leading-edge Research Infrastructure Program, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research 26000005, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 2905: JP17H06358, JP17H06361 and JP17H06364, JSPS Coreto-Core Program A. Advanced Research Networks, JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) 17H06133 and 20H05639 , JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Transformative Research Areas (A) 20A203: JP20H05854, the joint research program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, National Research Foundation (NRF) and Computing Infrastructure Project of KISTI-GSDC in Korea, Academia Sinica (AS), AS Grid Center (ASGC) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) in Taiwan under grants including AS-CDA-105-M06, Advanced Technology Center (ATC) of NAOJ, Mechanical Engineering Center of KEK.
Keywords:Gravitational waves.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Grant, Mr Alastair and Spencer, Mr Andrew and Masso Reid, Ms Mariela and Williams, Dr Daniel and Barr, Dr Bryan and Oelker, Dr Eric and Veitch, Dr John and Linley, Mr Jethro and Heng, Professor Ik Siong and Dupej, Peter and Briggs, Mr Joseph and Webster, Dr Stephen and Hendry, Professor Martin and Rowan, Professor Sheila and Cunningham, Dr Liam and Gray, Ms Rachel and Datrier, Ms Laurence and McGhee, Mr Graeme and Hough, Professor James and Huttner, Dr Sabina and Williams, Michael and Barton, Dr Mark and Messenger, Dr Christopher and Toland, Dr Karl and Hayes, Mr Fergus and Hammond, Professor Giles and Cummings, Ms Rebecca and Tait, Dr Simon and Kinley-Hanlon, Miss Maya and Scott, Dr Jamie and Martin, Dr Iain and Robertson, Professor Norna and Gabbard, Mr Hunter and Cumming, Dr Alan and Woan, Professor Graham and Callaghan, Mr Jack and Bayley, Mr Joseph and Strain, Professor Kenneth and Jones, Mr Russell and Eddolls, Graeme and Haughian, Dr Karen and Murray, Dr Peter
Authors: Abbott, R., Abbott, T.D., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, C., Adhikari, N., Adhikari, R.X., Adya, V.B., Affeldt, C., Agarwal, D., Agathos, M., Agatsuma, K., Aggarwal, N., Aguiar, O.D., Aiello, L., Ain, A., Ajith, P., Akutsu, T., Albanesi, S., Allocca, A., Altin, P.A., Amato, A., Anand, C., Anand, S., Ananyeva, A., Anderson, S.B., Anderson, W.G., Ando, M., Andrade, T., Andres, N., Andrić, T., Angelova, S.V., Ansoldi, S., Antelis, J.M., Antier, S., Appert, S., Arai, K., Arai, K., Arai, Y., Araki, S., Araya, A., Araya, M.C., Areeda, J. S., Arène, M., Aritomi, N., Arnaud, N., Aronson, S.M., Arun, K.G., Asada, H., Asali, Y., Ashton, G., Aso, Y., Assiduo, M., Aston, S.M., Astone, P., Aubin, F., Austin, C., Babak, S., Badaracco, F., Bader, M.K.M., Badger, C., Bae, S., Bae, Y., Baer, A.M., Bagnasco, S., Bai, Y., Baiotti, L., Baird, J., Bajpai, R., Ball, M., Ballardin, G., Ballmer, S.W., Balsamo, A., Baltus, G., Banagiri, S., Bankar, D., Barayoga, J.C., Barbieri, C., Barish, B.C., Barker, D., Barneo, P., Barone, F., Barr, B., Barsotti, L., Barsuglia, M., Barta, D., Bartlett, J., Barton, M.A., Bartos, I., Bassiri, R., Basti, A., Bawaj, M., Bayley, J.C., Baylor, A.C., Bazzan, M., Bécsy, B., Bedakihale, V.M., Bejger, M., Belahcene, I., Benedetto, V., Beniwal, D., Bennett, T.F., Bentley, J.D., BenYaala, M., Bergamin, F., Berger, B.K., Bernuzzi, S., Bersanetti, D., Bertolini, A., Betzwieser, J., Beveridge, D., Bhandare, R., Bhardwaj, U., Bhattacharjee, D., Bhaumik, S., Bilenko, I.A., Billingsley, G., Bini, S., Birney, R., Birnholtz, O., Biscans, S., Bischi, M., Biscoveanu, S., Bisht, A., Biswas, B., Bitossi, M., Bizouard, M.-A., Blackburn, J.K., Blair, C.D., Blair, D.G., Blair, R.M., Bobba, F., Bode, N., Boer, M., Bogaert, G., Boldrini, M., Bonavena, L.D., Bondu, F., Bonilla, E., Bonnand, R., Booker, P., Boom, B.A., Bork, R., Boschi, V., Bose, N., Bose, S., Bossilkov, V., Boudart, V., Bouffanais, Y., Bozzi, A., Bradaschia, C., Brady, P.R., Bramley, A., Branch, A., Branchesi, M., Brau, J.E., Breschi, M., Briant, T., Briggs, J.H., Brillet, A., Brinkmann, M., Brockill, P., Brooks, A.F., Brooks, J., Brown, D.D., Brunett, S., Bruno, G., Bruntz, R., Bryant, J., Bulik, T., Bulten, H.J., Buonanno, A., Buscicchio, R., Buskulic, D., Buy, C., Byer, R.L., Cadonati, L., Cagnoli, G., Cahillane, C., Bustillo, J. 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Subjects:Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Research Centre:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy > Institute for Gravitational Research
Research Group:Institute for Gravitational Research
Journal Name:Physical Review D
Publisher:American Physical Society
ISSN:2470-0010
ISSN (Online):2470-0029
Published Online:03 June 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 American Physical Society
First Published:First published in Physical Review D 105(12):122001
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
309290Advanced LIGO Operations SupportKenneth StrainScience and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/V001019/1P&S - Physics & Astronomy
312546Investigations in Gravitational RadiationSheila RowanScience and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/V005634/1ENG - Electronics & Nanoscale Engineering