mRNA or ChAd0x1 COVID-19 vaccination of adolescents induces robust antibody and cellular responses with continued recognition of omicron following mRNA-1273

Dowell, A. C. et al. (2022) mRNA or ChAd0x1 COVID-19 vaccination of adolescents induces robust antibody and cellular responses with continued recognition of omicron following mRNA-1273. Frontiers in Immunology, 13, 882515. (doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.882515) (PMID:35720281) (PMCID:PMC9201026)

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Children and adolescents generally experience mild COVID-19. However, those with underlying physical health conditions are at a significantly increased risk of severe disease. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of antibody and cellular responses in adolescents with severe neuro-disabilities who received COVID-19 vaccination with either ChAdOx1 (n=6) or an mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273, n=8, BNT162b2, n=1). Strong immune responses were observed after vaccination and antibody levels and neutralisation titres were both higher after two doses. Both measures were also higher after mRNA vaccination and were further enhanced by prior natural infection where one vaccine dose was sufficient to generate peak antibody response. Robust T-cell responses were generated after dual vaccination and were also higher following mRNA vaccination. Early T-cells were characterised by a dominant effector-memory CD4+ T-cell population with a type-1 cytokine signature with additional production of IL-10. Antibody levels were well-maintained for at least 3 months after vaccination and 3 of 4 donors showed measurable neutralisation titres against the Omicron variant. T-cell responses also remained robust, with generation of a central/stem cell memory pool and showed strong reactivity against Omicron spike. These data demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccines display strong immunogenicity in adolescents and that dual vaccination, or single vaccination following prior infection, generate higher immune responses than seen after natural infection and develop activity against Omicron. Initial evidence suggests that mRNA vaccination elicits stronger immune responses than adenoviral delivery, although the latter is also higher than seen in adult populations. COVID-19 vaccines are therefore highly immunogenic in high-risk adolescents and dual vaccination might be able to provide relative protection against the Omicron variant that is currently globally dominant.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Immunology, COVID-19, vaccine, paediatric, T-cell, antibody, neuro-disabilities, high-risk patients.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Willett, Professor Brian and Scott, Mr Sam and Davis, Dr Chris and Logan, Miss Nicola
Creator Roles:
Davis, C.Methodology, Formal analysis, Investigation, Supervision, Funding acquisition, Writing – review and editing
Scott, S.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Logan, N.Investigation, Writing – review and editing
Willett, B. J.Methodology, Formal analysis, Resources, Supervision, Funding acquisition, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Dowell, A. C., Powell, A. A., Davis, C., Scott, S., Logan, N., Willett, B. J., Bruton, R., Ayodele, M., Jinks, E., Gunn, J., Spalkova, E., Sylla, P., Nicol, S. M., Zuo, J., Ireland, G., Okike, I., Baawuah, F., Beckmann, J., Ahmad, S., Garstang, J., Brent, A. J., Brent, B., White, M., Collins, A., Davis, F., Lim, M., Cohen, J., Kenny, J., Linley, E., Poh, J., Amirthalingam, G., Brown, K., Ramsay, M. E., Azad, R., Wright, J., Waiblinger, D., Moss, P., and Ladhani, S. N.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity > Centre for Virus Research
Journal Name:Frontiers in Immunology
Publisher:Frontiers Media
ISSN (Online):1664-3224
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in Frontiers in Immunology 13: 882515
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
172630014Cross-Cutting Programme – Viral Genomics and Bioinformatics (Programme 9)David RobertsonMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_12014/12III - Centre for Virus Research