Extreme solar events

Cliver, E. W., Schrijver, C. J., Shibata, K. and Usoskin, I. G. (2022) Extreme solar events. Living Reviews in Solar Physics, 19, 2. (doi: 10.1007/s41116-022-00033-8)

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We trace the evolution of research on extreme solar and solar-terrestrial events from the 1859 Carrington event to the rapid development of the last twenty years. Our focus is on the largest observed/inferred/theoretical cases of sunspot groups, flares on the Sun and Sun-like stars, coronal mass ejections, solar proton events, and geomagnetic storms. The reviewed studies are based on modern observations, historical or long-term data including the auroral and cosmogenic radionuclide record, and Kepler observations of Sun-like stars. We compile a table of 100- and 1000-year events based on occurrence frequency distributions for the space weather phenomena listed above. Questions considered include the Sun-like nature of superflare stars and the existence of impactful but unpredictable solar "black swans" and extreme "dragon king" solar phenomena that can involve different physics from that operating in events which are merely large.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cliver, Dr Edward
Authors: Cliver, E. W., Schrijver, C. J., Shibata, K., and Usoskin, I. G.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Journal Name:Living Reviews in Solar Physics
ISSN (Online):1614-4961
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in Living Reviews in Solar Physics 19: 2
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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