A review of methods used to kill laboratory rodents: issues and opportunities

Clarkson, J. M. , Martin, J. E. and McKeegan, D. E.F. (2022) A review of methods used to kill laboratory rodents: issues and opportunities. Laboratory Animals, 56(5), pp. 419-436. (doi: 10.1177/00236772221097472)

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Abstract

Rodents are the most widely used species for scientific purposes. A critical pre-requisite of their use, based on utilitarian ethical reasoning, is the provision of a humane death when necessary for scientific or welfare grounds. Focussing on the welfare challenges presented by current methods, we critically evaluate the literature, consider emerging methodologies that may have potential for refinement and highlight knowledge gaps for future research. The evidence supports the conclusion that scientists and laboratory personnel should seek to avoid killing laboratory rodents by exposing them to carbon dioxide (CO2), unless exploiting its high-throughput advantage. We suggest that stakeholders and policymakers should advocate for the removal of CO2 from existing guidelines, instead making its use conditionally acceptable with justification for additional rationale for its application. With regards to physical methods such as cervical dislocation, decapitation and concussion, major welfare concerns are based on potential inaccuracy in application and their susceptibility to high failure rates. There is a need for independent quality-controlled training programmes to facilitate optimal success rates and the development of specialist tools to improve outcomes and reliability. Furthermore, we highlight questions surrounding the inconsistent inclusion criteria and acceptability of physical methods in international regulation and/or guidance, demonstrating a lack of cohesion across countries and lack of a comprehensive ‘gold standard’ methodology. We encourage better review of new data and championing of open access scientific resources to advocate for best practice and enable significant changes to policy and legislation to improve the welfare of laboratory rodents at killing.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:McKeegan, Dr Dorothy and Clarkson, Dr Jasmine and Martin, Miss Jessica
Authors: Clarkson, J. M., Martin, J. E., and McKeegan, D. E.F.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Laboratory Animals
Publisher:SAGE Publications
ISSN:0023-6772
ISSN (Online):1758-1117
Published Online:25 May 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in Laboratory Animals 56(5): 419-436
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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