A conceptual framework toward identifying and analyzing challenges to the advancement of pharmacy

Bader, L. R., McGrath, S. , Rouse, M. J. and Anderson, C. (2017) A conceptual framework toward identifying and analyzing challenges to the advancement of pharmacy. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 13(2), pp. 321-331. (doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.03.001)

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Background: Pharmacists and health care professionals are faced with increasing and changing health care needs around the world. To meet these demands, they are required to continuously upgrade and develop their professions. Reprofessionalization is therefore crucial to the successful delivery of health services, but traditional theories might provide little practical guidance to evaluating the overall status of a profession. Objective: This study proposes a new conceptual framework of three interrelated professional sectors: education, regulation and practice, and uses it to identify and analyze challenges facing the pharmacy profession in Jordan. Methods: A multiple-method qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and focus groups was conducted in Amman, Jordan. To explore and identify the challenges, a purposively recruited cross-sector sample of 53 key informants, stakeholders and pharmacists were interviewed. Interview transcripts were translated and analyzed using QSR NVivo 10. Thematic analysis identified eight main challenges facing pharmacy in Jordan. The original participants were then invited to participate in focus groups, the purpose of which was to validate the interview findings, map them against the conceptual framework and discuss recommendations for development. Results: The eight validated challenges span the following areas: graduates preparedness for practice, pharmacy education accreditation and quality assurance, pre-registration requirements, workforce development, workforce planning, remuneration and wage rate, pharmacy assistants, and Pharm.D. pharmacists. Focus group participants used the framework to map each of the challenges to the primary sector-to-sector disconnect that they perceived to explain it. A list of recommendations addressing each of the challenges was also devised. Conclusions: The framework was found to offer valuable insight as an explanatory and diagnostic tool in policy-relevant research. By emphasizing the processual and contextual nature of reprofessionalization, the framework presents an alternative approach to traditional theories. This study also raises important questions regarding the status of pharmacy in Jordan and aims to provide guidance for local development and much-needed reprofessionalization drives.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:McGrath, Professor Simon
Authors: Bader, L. R., McGrath, S., Rouse, M. J., and Anderson, C.
College/School:College of Social Sciences > School of Education
Journal Name:Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
ISSN (Online):1934-8150
Published Online:18 March 2016

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