Battery-free and wireless technologies for cardiovascular implantable medical devices

Zhang, J., Das, R. , Zhao, J., Mirzai, N., Mercer, J. and Heidari, H. (2022) Battery-free and wireless technologies for cardiovascular implantable medical devices. Advanced Materials Technologies, 7(6), 2101086. (doi: 10.1002/admt.202101086)

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Cardiovascular disease continues to be one of the dominant causes of global mortality. One effective treatment is to utilize cardiovascular implantable devices (cIMDs) with multi-functional cell sensing and monitoring features that have the potential to manipulate cardiovascular hyperplasia disorders as well as provide therapy. However, batteries with a fixed capacity entail high-risk surgeries for battery-replacement, which causes health hazards and imposes significant costs to patients. This review accesses comprehensive power solutions for cIMDs, from conventional batteries to state-of-the-art energy harvesters and wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes. In particular, WPT has great potential to eliminate the percutaneous wires and overcome frequent battery removal. Here, the fundamentals, power transfer efficiency, antenna design and miniaturization, and operating frequencies in various WPT schemes are presented. Moreover, the power loss attenuation and bio-safety standard (specific absorption rate) for implants are also considered in WPT design envelope. In addition, wireless data transmission of implantable devices from external to internal milieu (and vice versa) along with different modulation and demodulation techniques are investigated. The last advanced power solutions for cIMDs in in-vivo and in vitro research are illustrated throughout. Finally, specifications and future potential of WPT systems in cIMDs are highlighted.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was supported by MRC Confidence in Concept – Development of smart vascular device, the Glasgow Knowledge Exchange – Wireless Power transfer for Cardiovascular implantables, and Welcome Trust Grant Ref: 219390/Z/19/Z.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Mercer, Dr John and Zhao, Jinwei and Heidari, Professor Hadi and Mirzai, Mr Nosrat and Zhang, Jungang and Das, Dr Rupam
Authors: Zhang, J., Das, R., Zhao, J., Mirzai, N., Mercer, J., and Heidari, H.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Health
College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Electronics and Nanoscale Engineering
Journal Name:Advanced Materials Technologies
ISSN (Online):2365-709X
Published Online:07 January 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in Advanced Materials Technologies 7(6): 2101086
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
308165Institutional Translation Partnership AwardAnna DominiczakWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)219390/Z/19/ZMVLS - College Senior Management