Reduced neutralisation of the Delta (B.1.617.2) SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern following vaccination

Davis, C. et al. (2021) Reduced neutralisation of the Delta (B.1.617.2) SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern following vaccination. PLoS Pathogens, 17(12), e1010022. (doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010022) (PMID:34855916) (PMCID:PMC8639073)

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Abstract

Vaccines are proving to be highly effective in controlling hospitalisation and deaths associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection but the emergence of viral variants with novel antigenic profiles threatens to diminish their efficacy. Assessment of the ability of sera from vaccine recipients to neutralise SARS-CoV-2 variants will inform the success of strategies for minimising COVID19 cases and the design of effective antigenic formulations. Here, we examine the sensitivity of variants of concern (VOCs) representative of the B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2 (first associated with infections in India) and B.1.351 (first associated with infection in South Africa) lineages of SARS-CoV-2 to neutralisation by sera from individuals vaccinated with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 (Oxford/AstraZeneca) vaccines. Across all vaccinated individuals, the spike glycoproteins from B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2 conferred reductions in neutralisation of 4.31 and 5.11-fold respectively. The reduction seen with the B.1.617.2 lineage approached that conferred by the glycoprotein from B.1.351 (South African) variant (6.29-fold reduction) that is known to be associated with reduced vaccine efficacy. Neutralising antibody titres elicited by vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 were significantly higher than those elicited by vaccination with two doses of ChAdOx1. Fold decreases in the magnitude of neutralisation titre following two doses of BNT162b2, conferred reductions in titre of 7.77, 11.30 and 9.56-fold respectively to B.1.617.1, B.1.617.2 and B.1.351 pseudoviruses, the reduction in neutralisation of the delta variant B.1.617.2 surpassing that of B.1.351. Fold changes in those vaccinated with two doses of ChAdOx1 were 0.69, 4.01 and 1.48 respectively. The accumulation of mutations in these VOCs, and others, demonstrate the quantifiable risk of antigenic drift and subsequent reduction in vaccine efficacy. Accordingly, booster vaccines based on updated variants are likely to be required over time to prevent productive infection. This study also suggests that two dose regimes of vaccine are required for maximal BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1-induced immunity.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Vaccines, antibodies, enzyme-linked immunoassays, vaccination and immunization, SARS CoV 2, antibody response, viral vaccines, HIV vaccines.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Robertson, Professor David and Willett, Professor Brian and Palmarini, Professor Massimo and Davis, Dr Chris and Harvey, Dr William and Orton, Dr Richard and Blacow, Dr Rachel and Mollett, Mr Guy and Thomson, Professor Emma and Logan, Miss Nicola and Haughney, Dr John and Tyson, Grace and Patel, Professor Arvind and Murcia, Professor Pablo
Creator Roles:
Davis, C.Formal analysis, Project administration, Writing – review and editing
Logan, N.Formal analysis, Investigation, Validation
Tyson, G.Formal analysis, Investigation, Validation
Orton, R.Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review and editing
Harvey, W. T.Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review and editing
Mollett, G.Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review and editing
Blacow, R. M.Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review and editing
Palmarini, M.Funding acquisition, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Writing – review and editing
Murcia, P. R.Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review and editing
Patel, A. H.Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review and editing
Robertson, D. L.Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing – review and editing
Haughney, J.Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Supervision, Writing – review and editing
Thomson, E. C.Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Writing – review and editing
Willett, B. J.Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Davis, C., Logan, N., Tyson, G., Orton, R., Harvey, W. T., Perkins, J. S., Mollett, G., Blacow, R. M., Peacock, T. P., Barclay, W. S., Cherepanov, P., Palmarini, M., Murcia, P. R., Patel, A. H., Robertson, D. L., Haughney, J., Thomson, E. C., and Willett, B. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity > Centre for Virus Research
Journal Name:PLoS Pathogens
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1553-7366
ISSN (Online):1553-7374
Published Online:02 December 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 Davis et al.
First Published:First published in PLoS Pathogens 17(12): e1010022
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
Viral Genomics and BioinformaticsAndrew DavisonMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_12014/12III-MRC-GU Centre for Virus Research
302632Using a comparative One Health approach to investigate the structural basis of antigenic variation among human and avian influenza virusesJill PellMedical Research Council (MRC)MR/R024758/1Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
301313Atypical bovine morbillivirus infections in the Serengeti ecosystemBrian WillettBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/R004250/1III - Centre for Virus Research
302172A One Health approach to pan-valent morbillivirus vaccinesBrian WillettBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/R019843/1III - Centre for Virus Research