ATG2 and VPS13 proteins: Molecular highways transporting lipids to drive membrane expansion and organelle communication

McEwan, D. G. and Ryan, K. M. (2022) ATG2 and VPS13 proteins: Molecular highways transporting lipids to drive membrane expansion and organelle communication. FEBS Journal, 289(22), pp. 7113-7127. (doi: 10.1111/febs.16280) (PMID:34783437)

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Communication between organelles is an essential process that helps maintain cellular homeostasis and organelle contact sites have emerged recently as crucial mediators of this communication. The emergence of a class of molecular bridges that span the inter-organelle gaps has now been shown to direct the flow of lipid traffic from one lipid bilayer to another. One of the keys components of these molecular bridges is the presence of an N-terminal Chorein/VPS13 domain. This is an evolutionarily conserved domain present in multiple proteins within the endocytic and autophagy trafficking pathways. Herein, we discuss the current state-of-the-art of this class of proteins, focusing on the role of these lipid transporters in the autophagy and endocytic pathways. We discuss the recent biochemical and structural advances that have highlighted the essential role Chorein-N domain containing ATG2 proteins play in driving the formation of the autophagosome and how lipids are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the growing phagophore. We also consider the VPS13 proteins, their role in organelle contacts and the endocytic pathway and highlight how disease-causing mutations disrupt these contact sites. Finally, we open the door to discuss other Chorein_N domain containing proteins, for instance UHRF1BP1/1L, their role in disease and look towards prokaryote examples of Chorein_N-like domains. Taken together, recent advances have highlighted an exciting opportunity to delve deeper into inter-organelle communication and understand how lipids are transported between membrane bi-layers and how this process is disrupted in multiple diseases.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Ryan, Professor Kevin
Authors: McEwan, D. G., and Ryan, K. M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cancer Sciences
Journal Name:FEBS Journal
ISSN (Online):1742-4658
Published Online:16 November 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 Federation of European Biochemical Societies
First Published:First published in FEBS Journal 289(22):7113-7127
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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