Mortality inequalities measured by socioeconomic indicators in Brazil: a scoping review

Ichihara, M. Y. et al. (2022) Mortality inequalities measured by socioeconomic indicators in Brazil: a scoping review. Revista de Saúde Pública, 56, 85. (doi: 10.11606/s1518-8787.2022056004178) (PMID:36228230) (PMCID:PMC9529207)

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Objective: Summarize the literature on the relationship between composite socioeconomic indicators and mortality in different geographical areas of Brazil. Methods: This scoping review included articles published between January 1, 2000, and August 31, 2020, retrieved by means of a bibliographic search carried out in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Lilacs databases. Studies reporting on the association between composite socioeconomic indicators and all-cause, or specific cause of death in any age group in different geographical areas were selected. The review summarized the measures constructed, their associations with the outcomes, and potential study limitations. Results: Of the 77 full texts that met the inclusion criteria, the study reviewed 24. The area level of composite socioeconomic indicators analyzed comprised municipalities (n = 6), districts (n = 5), census tracts (n = 4), state (n = 2), country (n = 2), and other areas (n = 5). Six studies used composite socioeconomic indicators such as the Human Development Index, Gross Domestic Product, and the Gini Index; the remaining 18 papers created their own socioeconomic measures based on sociodemographic and health indicators. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with higher rates of all-cause mortality, external cause mortality, suicide, homicide, fetal and infant mortality, respiratory and circulatory diseases, stroke, infectious and parasitic diseases, malnutrition, gastroenteritis, and oropharyngeal cancer. Higher mortality rates due to colorectal cancer, leukemia, a general group of neoplasms, traffic accident, and suicide, in turn, were observed in less deprived areas and/or those with more significant socioeconomic development. Underreporting of death and differences in mortality coverage in Brazilian areas were cited as the main limitation. Conclusions: Studies analyzed mortality inequalities in different geographical areas by means of composite socioeconomic indicators, showing that the association directions vary according to the mortality outcome. But studies on all-cause mortality and at the census tract level remain scarce. The results may guide the development of new composite socioeconomic indicators for use in mortality inequality analysis.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR-GHRG/16/137/99). Fundação Bill & Melinda Gates Brasil (OPP1142172). Wellcome Trust (202912/Z/16/Z). Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes - doctoral scholarship for AJFF, CSST, ASR). Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq - Processs 307467/2018-0 - research scholarship for MRG).
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Leyland, Professor Alastair and Dundas, Professor Ruth
Authors: Ichihara, M. Y., Ferreira, A. J.F., Teixeira, C. S. S., Alves, F. J. O., Rocha, A. S., Diógenes, V. H. D., Ramos, D. O., Júnior, E. P. P., Flores-Ortiz, R., Rameh, L., da Costa, L. C. C., Gonzaga, M. R., Lima, E. E. C., Dundas, R., Leyland, A., and Barreto, M. L.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > MRC/CSO SPHSU
Journal Name:Revista de Saúde Pública
Publisher:Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Saude Publica
ISSN (Online):1518-8787
Published Online:30 September 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 Faculdade de Saúde Pública
First Published:First published in Revista de Saúde Pública 56: 85
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
300390Strengthening data linkage to reduce health inequalities in low and middle income countries: building on the Brazilian 100 million cohortAlastair LeylandNational Institute for Health Research (NIHR)16/137/99SHW - MRC/CSO Social & Public Health Sciences Unit
3048230021Inequalities in healthAlastair LeylandMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_00022/2HW - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit
3048230071Inequalities in healthAlastair LeylandOffice of the Chief Scientific Adviser (CSO)SPHSU17HW - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit