Understanding housing inequalities in urban Pakistan: an intersectionality perspective of ethnicity, income and education

Munir, F., Ahmad, S. , Ullah, S. and Wang, Y. P. (2022) Understanding housing inequalities in urban Pakistan: an intersectionality perspective of ethnicity, income and education. Journal of Race, Ethnicity and the City, 3(1), pp. 1-22. (doi: 10.1080/26884674.2021.1986442)

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Urban housing inequality is a major academic and policy concern in Pakistan, but empirical investigations and, in turn, evidence-based policy interventions are limited. This study examines the nature of housing inequalities and their determinants focusing on ethnolinguistic groups using a nationally representative household survey, where housing inequality is measured using two indicators: housing space usage (room per capita) and access to utilities (an index based on access to piped water, sewerage, cooking gas, and electricity). Results show that housing inequality by ethnicity is very high, and ethnic belonging, along with socioeconomic factors, significantly influences space consumption and access to utilities. Intersectionality between ethnicity, income, and education plays a crucial role in housing inequality. Balochi, Sindhi, and Siraiki communities have a lower potential for achieving adequate housing than other communities. To reduce housing inequalities, identified disadvantaged communities along with the economic poor should be targeted through housing policies and programmes.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funding: This work was supported by the Economic and Social Research Council [ES/P011020/1], and the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan [I-8/HEC/HRD/2019/10142 (IRSIP 44 S.Sc 07)].
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Ahmad, Dr Sohail and Wang, Professor Ya Ping and Munir, Mr Faisal
Authors: Munir, F., Ahmad, S., Ullah, S., and Wang, Y. P.
College/School:College of Social Sciences > School of Social and Political Sciences > Urban Studies
Journal Name:Journal of Race, Ethnicity and the City
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
ISSN (Online):2688-4682
Published Online:05 November 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Journal of Race, Ethnicity and the City 3(1): 1-22
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence
Data DOI:10.5525/gla.researchdata.1190

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
300882GCRF Centre for Sustainable, Healthy, and Learning Cities and Neighbourhoods (CSHLH)Ya Ping WangEconomic and Social Research Council (ESRC)ES/P011020/1S&PS - Urban Studies