Chemputation and the standardization of chemical informatics

Hammer, A. J.S., Leonov, A. I., Bell, N. L. and Cronin, L. (2021) Chemputation and the standardization of chemical informatics. JACS Au, 1(10), pp. 1572-1587. (doi: 10.1021/jacsau.1c00303) (PMCID:PMC8549037)

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The explosion in the use of machine learning for automated chemical reaction optimization is gathering pace. However, the lack of a standard architecture that connects the concept of chemical transformations universally to software and hardware provides a barrier to using the results of these optimizations and could cause the loss of relevant data and prevent reactions from being reproducible or unexpected findings verifiable or explainable. In this Perspective, we describe how the development of the field of digital chemistry or chemputation, that is the universal code-enabled control of chemical reactions using a standard language and ontology, will remove these barriers allowing users to focus on the chemistry and plug in algorithms according to the problem space to be explored or unit function to be optimized. We describe a standard hardware (the chemical processing programming architecture—the ChemPU) to encompass all chemical synthesis, an approach which unifies all chemistry automation strategies, from solid-phase peptide synthesis, to HTE flow chemistry platforms, while at the same time establishing a publication standard so that researchers can exchange chemical code (χDL) to ensure reproducibility and interoperability. Not only can a vast range of different chemistries be plugged into the hardware, but the ever-expanding developments in software and algorithms can also be accommodated. These technologies, when combined will allow chemistry, or chemputation, to follow computation—that is the running of code across many different types of capable hardware to get the same result every time with a low error rate.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the EPSRC (Grant Nos EP/L023652/1, EP/R020914/1, EP/S030603/1, EP/R01308X/1, EP/S017046/1, EP/S019472/1), the ERC (Project 670467 SMART-POM), the EC (project 766975 MADONNA), The John Templeton Foundation (Projects 60625 and 61184), and DARPA (projects W911NF-18-2-0036, W911NF-17-1-0316, HR001119S0003).
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Hammer, Mr Alexander and Leonov, Mr Artem and Bell, Dr Nicola and Cronin, Professor Lee
Authors: Hammer, A. J.S., Leonov, A. I., Bell, N. L., and Cronin, L.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Chemistry
Journal Name:JACS Au
Publisher:American Chemical Society
ISSN (Online):2691-3704
Published Online:31 August 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in JACS Au 1(10): 1572-1587
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
190796Programmable 'Digital' Synthesis for Discovery and Scale-up of Molecules, Clusters and NanomaterialsLeroy CroninEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/L023652/1Chemistry
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304037EPSRC International Centre-to-Centre CroninLeroy CroninEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/S030603/1Chemistry
300591Programmable Molecular Metal Oxides (PMMOs) - From Fundamentals to ApplicationLeroy CroninEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/R01308X/1Chemistry
3026673DSynth: Design and fabrication of cartridges for digital chemical synthesisLeroy CroninEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/S017046/1Chemistry
303747Digital-Chemical-Robotics for Translation of Code to Molecules and Complex Chemical SystemsLeroy CroninEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/S019472/1Chemistry
172151SMARTPOM: Artificial-Intelligence Driven Discovery and Synthesis of Polyoxometalate ClustersLeroy CroninEuropean Research Council (ERC)670467Chemistry
302959Microbial deployment of new-to-nature chemistries for refactoring the barriers between living and non-living matterLeroy CroninEuropean Commission (EC)766975Chemistry
173546A molecular complexity approach to identifying bio-signatures, shadow-life, and new life formsLeroy CroninJohn Templeton Foundation (TEMPLFOU)60625Chemistry
300851Programmable Multiplexed Droplets and Arrays Containing Reaction NetworksLeroy CroninDefense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)W911NF-18-2-0036Chemistry
303171Exploring the Informational Transitions Bridging Inorganic Chemistry and Minimal LifeLeroy CroninJohn Templeton Foundation (TEMPLFOU)ASUB00000226Chemistry