Energy, environmental, economic and social equity (4E) pressures of COVID-19 vaccination mismanagement: a global perspective

Jiang, P., Klemeš, J. J., Van Fan, Y., Fu, X., Tan, R. R., You, S. and Foley, A. M. (2021) Energy, environmental, economic and social equity (4E) pressures of COVID-19 vaccination mismanagement: a global perspective. Energy, 235, 121315. (doi: 10.1016/ (PMID:34226789) (PMCID:PMC8245053)

[img] Text
244770.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.



Vaccination now offers a way to resolve the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is critical to recognise the full energy, environmental, economic and social equity (4E) impacts of the vaccination life cycle. The full 4E impacts include the design and trials, order management, material preparation, manufacturing, cold chain logistics, low-temperature storage, crowd management and end-of-life waste management. A life cycle perspective is necessary for sustainable vaccination management because a prolonged immunisation campaign for COVID-19 is likely. The impacts are geographically dispersed across sectors and regions, creating real and virtual 4E footprints that occur at different timescales. Decision-makers in industry and governments have to act, unify, resolve, and work together to implement more sustainable COVID-19 vaccination management globally and locally to minimise the 4E footprints. Potential practices include using renewable energy in production, storage, transportation and waste treatment, using better product design for packaging, using the Internet of Things (IoT) and big data analytics for better logistics, using real-time database management for better tracking of deliveries and public vaccination programmes, and using coordination platforms for more equitable vaccine access. These practices raise global challenges but suggest solutions with a 4E perspective, which could mitigate the impacts of global vaccination campaigns and prepare sustainably for future pandemics and global warming.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:The financial support from the EU supported project Sustainable Process Integration Laboratory – SPIL funded as project No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000456, by Czech Republic Operational Programme Research and Development, Education, Priority 1: Strengthening capacity for quality research is acknowledged under the collaboration agreement with De La Salle University, Philippines. This study was also partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant No. 72042007] and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities [Grant No. YJ202138].
Keywords:Vaccination, vaccines, COVID-19, energy-environment-economy-equity, cold chain logistics, sustainable management.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:You, Dr Siming
Creator Roles:
You, S.Conceptualization, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Jiang, P., Klemeš, J. J., Van Fan, Y., Fu, X., Tan, R. R., You, S., and Foley, A. M.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Systems Power and Energy
Journal Name:Energy
ISSN (Online):1873-6785
Published Online:30 June 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd.
First Published:First published in Energy 235: 121315
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

University Staff: Request a correction | Enlighten Editors: Update this record