Spatial trends and human health risks of organochlorinated pesticides from bovine milk; a case study from a developing country, Pakistan

Sana, S., Qadir, A., Mumtaz, M., Evans, N. P. and Ahmad, S. R. (2021) Spatial trends and human health risks of organochlorinated pesticides from bovine milk; a case study from a developing country, Pakistan. Chemosphere, 276, 130110. (doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130110) (PMID:33725621)

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Bovine milk is a nutritious food commodity extensively produced and consumed in Punjab, Pakistan. This study assesses the concentration profile of organochlorine pesticides (OCP; 18 compounds) in buffaloes and cow's milk in eight major districts of Punjab, Pakistan and the potential impacts of such exposure. The total OCPs in buffaloes and cow's milk samples ranged from 3.93 to 27.63 ng mL and 14.64-77.93 ng mL respectively. The overall pattern of mean OCPs concentration in buffaloes and cows milk showed that Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are predominant followed by Heptachlors and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs). So far, the concentration profile depicted that ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs and ∑Heptachlors did not exceed the maximum residual limits set for buffaloes and cow's milk. The spatial trends in terms of cluster analysis depicted significant variation (p > 0.05) among the districts in one cluster probably owing to local conditions. Furthermore, recently used DDTs were also identified at some of the selected districts. The risk assessment suggests that the estimated daily intake for each OCP was in accordance with the acceptable daily intake, thus single compound exposure does not pose a significant carcinogenic risk. However, the hazard ratios indicated that the values for ∑DDTs posed risk in adults consuming cow's milk whereas children may face carcinogenic risk on the consumption of both buffalo and cow's milk. The risk may be altered where mixture is considered, furthermore, regarding carcinogenic risks a continuous monitoring based ecological analysis is recommended in the future.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Buffaloes, cows, human health risk, milk, organochlorine pesticides, Pakistan.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Evans, Professor Neil
Creator Roles:
Evans, N. P.Funding acquisition, Methodology, Resources, Software, Validation, Visualization, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Sana, S., Qadir, A., Mumtaz, M., Evans, N. P., and Ahmad, S. R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Chemosphere
ISSN (Online):1879-1298
Published Online:01 March 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Ltd.
First Published:First published in Chemosphere 276: 130110
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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