Application of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks as imaging agents in biology and medicine

Demir Duman, F. and Forgan, R. S. (2021) Application of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks as imaging agents in biology and medicine. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 9(16), pp. 3423-3449. (doi: 10.1039/D1TB00358E)

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Nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) are an interesting and unique class of hybrid porous materials constructed by the self-assembly of metal ions/clusters with organic linkers. The high storage capacities, facile synthesis, easy surface functionalization, diverse compositions and excellent biocompatibilities of NMOFs have made them promising agents for theranostic applications. By combination of a large variety of metal ions and organic ligands, and incorporation of desired molecular functionalities including imaging modalities and therapeutic molecules, diverse MOF structures with versatile functionalities can be obtained and utilized in biomedical imaging and drug delivery. In recent years, NMOFs have attracted great interest as imaging agents in optical imaging (OI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Furthermore, the significant porosity of MOFs allows them to be loaded with multiple imaging agents and therapeutics simultaneously and applications for multimodal imaging and therapy with a single entity. In this review, which is intended as an introduction to the use of MOFs in biomedical imaging for reader entering the subject, we summarize the up-to-date progress of NMOFs as bioimaging agents, giving (i) a broad perspective of the varying imaging techniques that MOFs can enable, (ii) the different routes to manufacturing functionalised MOF nanoparticles and hybrids, and (iii) the integration of imaging with differing therapeutic techniques. The current challenges and perspectives of NMOFs for their further clinical translation are also highlighted and discussed.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Demir Duman, Dr Fatma and Forgan, Professor Ross
Authors: Demir Duman, F., and Forgan, R. S.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Chemistry
Journal Name:Journal of Materials Chemistry B
Publisher:Royal Society of Chemistry
ISSN (Online):2050-7518
Published Online:25 March 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Royal Society of Chemistry
First Published:First published in Journal of Materials Chemistry B 9(16): 3423-3449
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
172845SCoTMOFRoss ForganEuropean Research Council (ERC)677289Chemistry