Nodding off but can't disconnect: development and validation of the iNOD index of Nighttime Offline Distress

Scott, H., Biello, S. M. and Cleland Woods, H. (2021) Nodding off but can't disconnect: development and validation of the iNOD index of Nighttime Offline Distress. Sleep Medicine, 81, pp. 430-438. (doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2021.02.045)

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Abstract

Background: There is a pressing need to update sleep models, education and treatment to better reflect the realities of sleep in a 24/7 connected social world. Progress has been limited to date by available measurement tools, which have largely focused on the frequency or duration of individuals’ social media use, without capturing crucial sleep-relevant aspects of this inherently social and interactive experience. Methods: Survey data from 3,008 adolescents (aged 10-18 years) was used to rigorously develop and validate a new self-report measure that quantifies difficulty disengaging from social media interactions at night: the index of Nighttime Offline Distress (iNOD). Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor analyses in a random split sample produced a ten-item two-factor solution, with subscales capturing concerns about Staying Connected and Following Etiquette (Cronbach’s alphas = .91 and .92 respectively). Results: Those with higher scores on these subscales tended to report using social media for longer after they felt they should be asleep (rs = .41 and .26, respectively), shorter sleep duration (rs = -.24 and -.17, respectively) and poorer sleep quality (rs = -.33 and -.31, respectively). Results also pointed towards a potentially fragmented process of sleep displacement for those who may struggle to disconnect - and to stay disconnected - from social interactions in order to allow sufficient uninterrupted sleep opportunity. Conclusions: These findings can inform current models for understanding normal and disordered sleep during adolescence, whilst highlighting specific social concerns as important potential targets for sleep education efforts.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cleland Woods, Heather and Biello, Professor Stephany and Scott, Dr Holly
Creator Roles:
Scott, H.Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Writing – original draft
Biello, S. M.Supervision, Writing – review and editing
Cleland Woods, H.Supervision, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Scott, H., Biello, S. M., and Cleland Woods, H.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Psychology
Journal Name:Sleep Medicine
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1389-9457
ISSN (Online):1878-5506
Published Online:04 March 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V.
First Published:First published in Sleep Medicine 81: 430-438
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
190423ESRC Doctoral Training Centre 2011...Mary Beth KneafseyEconomic and Social Research Council (ESRC)ES/J500136/1Research and Innovation Services