Multilevel analysis of the role of women's empowerment on use of contraceptive methods among married Cambodian women: evidence from demographic health surveys between 2005 and 2014

Nkoka, O., Lee, D., Chuang, K.-Y. and Chuang, Y.-C. (2021) Multilevel analysis of the role of women's empowerment on use of contraceptive methods among married Cambodian women: evidence from demographic health surveys between 2005 and 2014. BMC Women's Health, 21(1), 9. (doi: 10.1186/s12905-020-01141-z) (PMID:33407398) (PMCID:PMC7789707)

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Background: The use of contraceptives is an essential public health concept that improves overall safe motherhood and infant health. Women empowerment has been reported to influence health behaviors in women. With recent efforts to increase access to contraceptive methods, uptake of the same remains a challenge in Cambodia. There are limited studies that have examined the role of women’s empowerment at both individual- and community- level on contraceptive use in Cambodia. This study examined the individual- and community-level factors associated with contraceptive use among Cambodian married women between 2005 and 2014. Methods: Data from 2005, 2010, and 2014 Cambodia Demographic and Health Surveys were used to analyze 2211; 10,505; and 10,849 women, respectively. Multilevel binary and multinomial logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between individual- and community- level factors, and the use of contraceptive methods. Results: The prevalence of using modern contraceptive methods increased over time (i.e., 29.0, 38.1, and 42.3% in 2005, 2010, and 2014, respectively). At the individual level, women who attained secondary and higher education were more likely to use any contraceptives [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22–1.68, and aOR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.05–1.44 in 2010 and 2014, respectively] compared with those with no formal education. Similarly, having a high workforce participation level was significantly associated with increased likelihood of using any contraceptive methods [aOR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00–1.26, aOR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.29–1.60 and in 2010 and 2014, respectively]. Other factors such as age at first marriage, residence, and having a health insurance were associated with contraceptive use. The proportional change in variance showed that about 14.3% of total variations in the odds of contraceptive use across the communities were explained by both individual- and community-level factors. Moreover, the intraclass correlation showed that about 5.2% of the total variation remained unexplained even after adjustments. Conclusion: Both individual- and community- level factors influenced contraceptive use in Cambodia. When designing programs to improve contraceptive use, contextual influences should be taken into account for the effectiveness of the programs.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan: Grant No. MOST 106–2410-H-038-017 to Dr. Ying-Chih Chuang.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Nkoka, Dr Owen
Authors: Nkoka, O., Lee, D., Chuang, K.-Y., and Chuang, Y.-C.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > Robertson Centre
Journal Name:BMC Women's Health
ISSN (Online):1472-6874
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in BMC Women's Health 21(1):9
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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