Comparison of treatments for frozen shoulder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Challoumas, D., Biddle, M., McLean, M. and Millar, N. L. (2020) Comparison of treatments for frozen shoulder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Network Open, 3(12), e2029581. (doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.29581)

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Importance: There are a myriad of available treatment options for patients with frozen shoulder, which can be overwhelming to the treating health care professional. Objective: To assess and compare the effectiveness of available treatment options for frozen shoulder to guide musculoskeletal practitioners and inform guidelines. Data Sources: Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and CINHAL were searched in February 2020. Study Selection: Studies with a randomized design of any type that compared treatment modalities for frozen shoulder with other modalities, placebo, or no treatment were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were independently extracted by 2 individuals. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Random-effects models were used. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pain and function were the primary outcomes, and external rotation range of movement (ER ROM) was the secondary outcome. Results of pairwise meta-analyses were presented as mean differences (MDs) for pain and ER ROM and standardized mean differences (SMDs) for function. Length of follow-up was divided into short-term (≤12 weeks), mid-term (>12 weeks to ≤12 months), and long-term (>12 months) follow-up. Results: From a total of 65 eligible studies with 4097 participants that were included in the systematic review, 34 studies with 2402 participants were included in pairwise meta-analyses and 39 studies with 2736 participants in network meta-analyses. Despite several statistically significant results in pairwise meta-analyses, only the administration of intra-articular (IA) corticosteroid was associated with statistical and clinical superiority compared with other interventions in the short-term for pain (vs no treatment or placebo: MD, −1.0 visual analog scale [VAS] point; 95% CI, −1.5 to −0.5 VAS points; P < .001; vs physiotherapy: MD, −1.1 VAS points; 95% CI, −1.7 to −0.5 VAS points; P < .001) and function (vs no treatment or placebo: SMD, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9; P < .001; vs physiotherapy: SMD 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.7; P < .001). Subgroup analyses and the network meta-analysis demonstrated that the addition of a home exercise program with simple exercises and stretches and physiotherapy (electrotherapy and/or mobilizations) to IA corticosteroid may be associated with added benefits in the mid-term (eg, pain for IA coritocosteriod with home exercise vs no treatment or placebo: MD, −1.4 VAS points; 95% CI, −1.8 to −1.1 VAS points; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that the early use of IA corticosteroid in patients with frozen shoulder of less than 1-year duration is associated with better outcomes. This treatment should be accompanied by a home exercise program to maximize the chance of recovery.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Challoumas, Mr Dimitris and Millar, Professor Neal
Authors: Challoumas, D., Biddle, M., McLean, M., and Millar, N. L.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Research Centre:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity > Centre for Immunobiology
Journal Name:JAMA Network Open
Publisher:American Medical Association
ISSN (Online):2574-3805
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 Challoumas D et al.
First Published:First published in JAMA Network Open 3(12):e2029581
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
301515Damage mechanisms in tendon diseaseNeal MillarMedical Research Council (MRC)MR/R020515/1III - Immunology