The association of kidney function and cognitive decline in older patients at risk of cardiovascular disease: a longitudinal data analysis

Zijlstra, L. E., Trompet, S., Mooijaart, S. P., van Buren, M., Sattar, N. , Stott, D. J. and Jukema, J. W. (2020) The association of kidney function and cognitive decline in older patients at risk of cardiovascular disease: a longitudinal data analysis. BMC Nephrology, 21, 81. (doi: 10.1186/s12882-020-01745-5) (PMID:32138689) (PMCID:PMC7059260)

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Abstract

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been identified as a significant direct marker for cognitive decline, but controversy exists regarding the magnitude of the association of kidney function with cognitive decline across the different CKD stages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of kidney function with cognitive decline in older patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, using data from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Methods Data of 5796 patients of PROSPER were used. Strata were made according to clinical stages of CKD based on estimated glomerular filtration rate; < 30 ml/min/1.73m2 (stage 4), 30-45 ml/min/1.73m2 (stage 3b), 45-60 ml/min/1.73m2 (stage 3a) and ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2 (stage 1–2). Cognitive function and functional status was assessed at six different time points and means were compared at baseline and over time, adjusted for multiple prespecified variables. Stratified analyses for history of vascular disease were executed. Results: Mean age was 75.3 years and 48.3% participants were male. Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. For all cognitive function tests CKD stage 4 compared to the other stages had the worst outcome at baseline and a trend for faster cognitive decline over time. When comparing stage 4 versus stage 1–2 over time the estimates (95% CI) were 2.23 (0.60–3.85; p = 0.009) for the Stroop-Colour-Word test, − 0.33 (− 0.66–0.001; p = 0.051) for the Letter-Digit-Coding test, 0.08 (− 0.06–0.21; p = 0.275) for the Picture-Word-Learning test with immediate recall and − 0.07 (− 0.02–0.05; p = 0.509) for delayed recall. This association was most present in patients with a history of vascular disease. No differences were found in functional status. Conclusion: In older people with vascular burden, only severe kidney disease (CKD stage 4), but not mild to modest kidney disease (CKD stage 3a and b), seem to be associated with cognitive impairment at baseline and cognitive decline over time. The association of severe kidney failure with cognitive impairment and decline over time was more outspoken in patients with a history of vascular disease, possibly due to a higher probability of polyvascular damage, in both kidney and brain, in patients with proven cardiovascular disease.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:The Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial was supported by an unrestricted investigator-initiated grant from Bristol-Myers Squibb, USA.
Keywords:Chronic kidney disease, cognitive function, vascular disease.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Stott J, Professor David and Sattar, Professor Naveed
Authors: Zijlstra, L. E., Trompet, S., Mooijaart, S. P., van Buren, M., Sattar, N., Stott, D. J., and Jukema, J. W.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:BMC Nephrology
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1471-2369
ISSN (Online):1471-2369
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in BMC Nephrology 21: 81
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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