Regulatory T cells in helminth infection: induction, function and therapeutic potential

White, M. P.J., McManus, C. M. and Maizels, R. M. (2020) Regulatory T cells in helminth infection: induction, function and therapeutic potential. Immunology, 160(3), pp. 248-260. (doi: 10.1111/imm.13190) (PMID:32153025) (PMCID:PMC7341546)

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Abstract

Helminth parasites infect an alarmingly large proportion of the world’s population, primarily within tropical regions, and their ability to down‐modulate host immunity is key to their persistence. Helminths have developed multiple mechanisms that induce a state of hyporesponsiveness or immune suppression within the host; of particular interest are mechanisms that drive the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Helminths actively induce Tregs either directly by secreting factors, such as the TGF‐β mimic Hp‐TGM, or indirectly by interacting with bystander cell types such as dendritic cells and macrophages which then induce Tregs. Expansion of Tregs not only enhances parasite survival but in cases such as filarial infection, Tregs also play a role in preventing parasite‐associated pathologies. Furthermore, Tregs generated during helminth infection have been associated with suppression of bystander immunopathologies in a range of inflammatory conditions such as allergy and autoimmune disease. In this review we discuss evidence from natural and experimental infections that point to the pathways and molecules involved in helminth Treg induction, and postulate how parasite‐derived molecules and/or Tregs might be applied as anti‐inflammatory therapies in the future.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:McManus, Miss Caitlin and White, Dr Madeleine and Maizels, Professor Rick
Authors: White, M. P.J., McManus, C. M., and Maizels, R. M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity
Journal Name:Immunology
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:0019-2805
ISSN (Online):1365-2567
Published Online:10 March 2020
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in Immunology 160(3): 248-260
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons Licence

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
173801Helminths and the Immune System: Regulation, Regulators and ImmunityRichard MaizelsWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)106122/A/14/ZInstitute of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation