Community recovery dynamics in yellow perch microbiome after gradual and constant metallic perturbations

Cheaib, B. , Seghouani, H., Ijaz, U. and Derome, N. (2020) Community recovery dynamics in yellow perch microbiome after gradual and constant metallic perturbations. Microbiome, 8, 14. (doi: 10.1186/s40168-020-0789-0) (PMID:32041654) (PMCID:PMC7011381)

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Background: The eco-evolutionary processes ruling post-disturbance microbial assembly remain poorly studied, particularly in host-microbiome systems. The community recovery depends not only on the type, duration, intensity, and gradient of disturbance, but also on the initial community structure, phylogenetic composition, legacy, and habitat (soil, water, host). In this study, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) juveniles were exposed over 90 days to constant and gradual sublethal doses of cadmium chloride. Afterward, the exposure of aquaria tank system to cadmium was ceased for 60 days. The skin, gut and water tank microbiomes in control and treatment groups, were characterized before, during and after the cadmium exposure using 16s rDNA libraries and high throughput sequencing technology (Illumina, Miseq). Results: Our data exhibited long-term bioaccumulation of cadmium salts in the liver even after two months since ceasing the exposure. The gradient of cadmium disturbance had differential effects on the perch microbiota recovery, including increases in evenness, taxonomic composition shifts, as well as functional and phylogenetic divergence. The perch microbiome reached an alternative stable state in the skin and nearly complete recovery trajectories in the gut communities. The recovery of skin communities showed a significant proliferation of opportunistic fish pathogens (i.e., Flavobacterium). Our findings provide evidence that neutral processes were a much more significant contributor to microbial community turnover in control treatments than in those treated with cadmium, suggesting the role of selective processes in driving community recovery. Conclusions: The short-term metallic disturbance of fish development has important long-term implications for host health. The recovery of microbial communities after metallic exposure depends on the magnitude of exposure (constant, gradual), and the nature of the ecological niche (water, skin, and gut). The skin and gut microbiota of fish exposed to constant concentrations of cadmium (CC) were closer to the control negative than those exposed to the gradual concentrations (CV). Overall, our results show that the microbial assembly during the community recovery were both orchestrated by neutral and deterministic processes.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funding for this project was provided by the National Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada (NSERC), a Canadian Research Chair in genomics and conservation of aquatic resources to ND.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cheaib, Dr Bachar and Ijaz, Dr Umer
Authors: Cheaib, B., Seghouani, H., Ijaz, U., and Derome, N.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Infrastructure and Environment
Journal Name:Microbiome
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN (Online):2049-2618
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in Microbiome 8:14
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
170256Understanding microbial community through in situ environmental 'omic data synthesisUmer Zeeshan IjazNatural Environment Research Council (NERC)NE/L011956/1ENG - Infrastructure & Environment