The smoking cessation in pregnancy incentives trial (CPIT): study protocol for a phase III randomised controlled trial

Sinclair, L. et al. (2020) The smoking cessation in pregnancy incentives trial (CPIT): study protocol for a phase III randomised controlled trial. Trials, 21, 183. (doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-4042-8) (PMID:32059684) (PMCID:PMC7023794)

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Background: Eighty per cent of UK women have at least one baby, making pregnancy an opportunity to help women stop smoking before their health is irreparably compromised. Smoking cessation during pregnancy helps protect infants from miscarriage, still birth, low birth weight, asthma, attention deficit disorder and adult cardiovascular disease. UK national guidelines highlight lack of evidence for effectiveness of financial incentives to help pregnant smokers quit. This includes a research recommendation: within a UK context, are incentives an acceptable, effective and cost-effective way to help pregnant women who smoke to quit? Methods: The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT) III is a pragmatic, 42-month, multi-centre, parallel-group, individually randomised controlled superiority trial of the effect on smoking status of adding to usual Stop Smoking Services (SSS) support, the offer of up to £400 of financial voucher incentives, compared with usual support alone, to quit smoking during pregnancy. Participants (n = 940) are pregnant smokers (age > 16 years, < 24 weeks pregnant, English speaking), who consent via telephone to take part and are willing to be followed-up in late pregnancy and 6 months after birth. The primary outcome is cotinine/anabasine-validated abstinence from smoking in late pregnancy. Secondary outcomes include engagement with SSS, quit rates at 4 weeks from agreed quit date and 6 months after birth, and birth weight. Outcomes will be analysed by intention to treat, and regression models will be used to compare treatment effects on outcomes. A meta-analysis will include data from the feasibility study in Glasgow. An economic evaluation will assess cost-effectiveness from a UK NHS perspective. Process evaluation using a case-study approach will identify opportunities to improve recruitment and learning for future implementation. Research questions include: what is the therapeutic efficacy of incentives; are incentives cost-effective; and what are the potential facilitators and barriers to implementing incentives in different parts of the UK? Discussion: This phase III trial in Scotland, England and Northern Ireland follows a successful phase II trial in Glasgow, UK. The participating sites have diverse SSS that represent most cessation services in the UK and serve demographically varied populations. If found to be acceptable and cost-effective, this trial could demonstrate that financial incentives are effective and transferable to most UK SSS for pregnant women. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN15236311. Registered on 9 October 2017.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Tappin, Professor David and Boyd, Professor Kathleen and Mcmeekin, Dr Nicola
Authors: Sinclair, L., McFadden, M., Tilbrook, H., Mitchell, A., Keding, A., Watson, J., Bauld, L., Kee, F., Torgerson, D., Hewitt, C., McKell, J., Hoddinott, P., Harris, F. M., Uny, I., Boyd, K., McMeekin, N., Ussher, M., and Tappin, D. M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Health & Wellbeing > Health Economics and Health Technology Assessment
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:Trials
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN (Online):1745-6215
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2020 The Authors
First Published:First published in Trials 21: 183
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
300299Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT): A phase III Randomised Controlled TrialDavid TappinCancer Research UK (CRUK)C48006/A20863Med - Child Health