Global selective sweep of a highly inbred genome of the cattle parasite

Khan, A. et al. (2019) Global selective sweep of a highly inbred genome of the cattle parasite. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(45), pp. 22764-22773. (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1913531116) (PMID:31636194) (PMCID:PMC6842595)

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Neospora caninum, a cyst-forming apicomplexan parasite, is a leading cause of neuromuscular diseases in dogs as well as fetal abortion in cattle worldwide. The importance of the domestic and sylvatic life cycles of Neospora, and the role of vertical transmission in the expansion and transmission of infection in cattle, is not sufficiently understood. To elucidate the population genomics of Neospora, we genotyped 50 isolates collected worldwide from a wide range of hosts using 19 linked and unlinked genetic markers. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance indices resolved a single genotype of N. caninum. Whole-genome sequencing of 7 isolates from 2 different continents identified high linkage disequilibrium, significant structural variation, but only limited polymorphism genome-wide, with only 5,766 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) total. Greater than half of these SNPs (∼3,000) clustered into 6 distinct haploblocks and each block possessed limited allelic diversity (with only 4 to 6 haplotypes resolved at each cluster). Importantly, the alleles at each haploblock had independently segregated across the strains sequenced, supporting a unisexual expansion model that is mosaic at 6 genomic blocks. Integrating seroprevalence data from African cattle, our data support a global selective sweep of a highly inbred livestock pathogen that originated within European dairy stock and expanded transcontinentally via unisexual mating and vertical transmission very recently, likely the result of human activities, including recurrent migration, domestication, and breed development of bovid and canid hosts within similar proximities.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:A.K., A.W.F., J.S.S., K.S., A.J.O., M.Q., and M.E.G. are supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the National Institutes of Health. Spanish contribution was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (AGL2013-44694-R and AGL2016-75935-C2-1-R).
Keywords:Neospora caninum, genome, population genetics, protozoan, unisexual.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cleaveland, Professor Sarah
Authors: Khan, A., Fujita, A. W., Randle, N., Regidor-Cerrillo, J., Shaik, J. S., Shen, K., Oler, A. J., Quinones, M., Latham, S. M., Akanmori, B. D., Cleaveland, S., Innes, E. A., Ryan, U., Šlapeta, J., Schares, G., Ortega-Mora, L. M., Dubey, J. P., Wastling, J. M., and Grigg, M. E.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN (Online):1091-6490
Published Online:21 October 2019

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