Infection and transmission of Cache Valley virus by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

Ayers, V. B., Huang, Y.-J. S., Lyons, A. C., Park, S. L., Dunlop, J. I., Unlu, I., Kohl, A. , Higgs, S., Blitvich, B. J. and Vanlandingham, D. L. (2019) Infection and transmission of Cache Valley virus by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Parasites and Vectors, 12(1), 384. (doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3643-0) (PMID:31366369) (PMCID:PMC6670168)

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Background: Cache Valley virus (CVV; Bunyavirales, Peribunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus endemic in North America. Although severe diseases are mainly observed in pregnant ruminants, CVV has also been recognized as a zoonotic pathogen that can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. Human exposures to CVV and its related subtypes occur frequently under different ecological conditions in the New World; however, neurotropic disease is rarely reported. High prevalence rates of neutralizing antibodies have been detected among residents in several Latin American cities. However, zoophilic mosquito species involved in the enzootic transmission are unlikely to be responsible for the transmission leading to human exposures to CVV. Mechanisms that lead to frequent human exposures to CVV remain largely unknown. In this study, competence of two anthropophilic mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti, for CVV was determined using per os infection to determine if these species could play a role in the transmission of CVV in the domestic and peridomestic settings of urban and suburban areas. Results: Aedes albopictus were highly susceptible to CVV whereas infection of Ae. aegypti occurred at a significantly lower frequency. Whilst the dissemination rates of CVV were comparable in the two species, the relatively long period to attain maximal infectious titer in Ae. aegypti demonstrated a significant difference in the replication kinetics of CVV in these species. Detection of viral RNA in saliva suggests that both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti are competent vectors for CVV under laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Differential susceptibility to CVV was observed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, reflecting their relatively different capacities for vectoring CVV in nature. The high susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to CVV observed in this study suggests its potential role as an efficient vector for CVV. Complemented by the reports of multiple CVV isolates derived from Ae. albopictus, our finding provides the basis for how the dispersal of Ae. albopictus across the New World may have a significant impact on the transmission and ecology of CVV.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:The project is also supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (award number: 2015-67015-22961). The study is also supported by United States Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate (contract number: D15PC00276), USDA Agricultural Research Service Cooperative Agreement (58-5430-4-021).
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Dunlop, Dr James and Kohl, Professor Alain
Authors: Ayers, V. B., Huang, Y.-J. S., Lyons, A. C., Park, S. L., Dunlop, J. I., Unlu, I., Kohl, A., Higgs, S., Blitvich, B. J., and Vanlandingham, D. L.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Parasites and Vectors
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN (Online):1756-3305
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2019 The Authors
First Published:First published in Parasites and Vectors 12(1):384
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
670431US-UK BBSRC-NIFA Collab: Control of emerging bunyavirusesAlain KohlBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/M027112/1MVLS III - CENTRE FOR VIRUS RESEARCH
709011Quinquennial Core FundsMassimo PalmariniMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_12014/9MVLS III - CENTRE FOR VIRUS RESEARCH