Host and viral translational mechanisms during cricket paralysis virus infection

Garrey, J. L., Lee, Y.-Y., Au, H. H.T. A., Bushell, M. and Jan, E. (2010) Host and viral translational mechanisms during cricket paralysis virus infection. Journal of Virology, 84(2), pp. 1124-1138. (doi: 10.1128/JVI.02006-09) (PMID:19889774) (PMCID:PMC2798387)

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The dicistrovirus is a positive-strand single-stranded RNA virus that possesses two internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) that direct translation of distinct open reading frames encoding the viral structural and nonstructural proteins. Through an unusual mechanism, the intergenic region (IGR) IRES responsible for viral structural protein expression mimics a tRNA to directly recruit the ribosome and set the ribosome into translational elongation. In this study, we explored the mechanism of host translational shutoff in Drosophila S2 cells infected by the dicistrovirus, cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). CrPV infection of S2 cells results in host translational shutoff concomitant with an increase in viral protein synthesis. CrPV infection resulted in the dissociation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and eIF4E early in infection and the induction of deIF2α phosphorylation at 3 h postinfection, which lags after the initial inhibition of host translation. Forced dephosphorylation of deIF2α by overexpression of dGADD34, which activates protein phosphatase I, did not prevent translational shutoff nor alter virus production, demonstrating that deIF2α phosphorylation is dispensable for host translational shutoff. However, premature induction of deIF2α phosphorylation by thapsigargin treatment early in infection reduced viral protein synthesis and replication. Finally, translation mediated by the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) and the IGR IRES were resistant to impairment of eIF4F or eIF2 in translation extracts. These results support a model by which the alteration of the deIF4F complex contribute to the shutoff of host translation during CrPV infection, thereby promoting viral protein synthesis via the CrPV 5′UTR and IGR IRES.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This study was supported by a Canadian Institute of Health Research grant (CIHR) (MOP-81244). E.J. is supported by career development awards by Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research and CIHR.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Bushell, Professor Martin
Authors: Garrey, J. L., Lee, Y.-Y., Au, H. H.T. A., Bushell, M., and Jan, E.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cancer Sciences
Journal Name:Journal of Virology
Publisher:American Society for Microbiology Journals
ISSN (Online):1098-5514
Published Online:04 November 2009

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