The role of microRNA in nutritional control

Nolte-’t Hoen, E. N. M., Van Rooij, E., Bushell, M. , Zhang, C.-Y., Dashwood, R. H., James, W. P. T., Harris, C. and Baltimore, D. (2015) The role of microRNA in nutritional control. Journal of Internal Medicine, 278(2), pp. 99-109. (doi: 10.1111/joim.12372) (PMID:25832550)

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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of a growing class of noncoding RNAs that are involved in the regulation of a wide range of metabolic processes including cellular differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. The generation of miRNA is regulated in complex ways, for example by small interfering RNAs (small nucleolar and nuclear RNAs) and various other metabolites. This complexity of control is likely to explain how a relatively small part of the DNA that codes for proteins has enabled the evolution of such complex organisms as mammals. Non‐protein‐coding DNA is therefore thought to carry the memory of early evolutionary steps that led to progressively complex metabolic controls. Clinically, miRNAs are becoming increasingly important following the recognition that some congenital abnormalities can be traced to defects in miRNA processing. The potential for manipulating metabolism and affecting disease processes by the pharmaceutical or biological targeting of specific miRNA pathways is now being tested. miRNAs are also released into the extracellular milieu after packaging by cells into nano‐sized extracellular vesicles. Such vesicles can be taken up by adjacent and possibly more distant cells, thereby allowing coordinated intercellular communication in specific tissues. Extracellular miRNAs found in the blood stream may also serve as novel biomarkers for both diagnosing specific forms of cancer and assessing the likelihood of metastasis, and as powerful prognostic indices for various cancers. Here, we discuss the role of intracellular and extracellular miRNAs in nutritional control of various (patho)physiological processes. In this review, we provide an update of the presentations from the 25th Marabou Symposium (Stockholm, 14–16 June 2013) entitled ‘Role of miRNA in health and nutrition’, attended by 50 international experts.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Bushell, Professor Martin
Authors: Nolte-’t Hoen, E. N. M., Van Rooij, E., Bushell, M., Zhang, C.-Y., Dashwood, R. H., James, W. P. T., Harris, C., and Baltimore, D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cancer Sciences
Journal Name:Journal of Internal Medicine
ISSN (Online):1365-2796
Published Online:02 April 2015

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