Waves of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in eastern Africa suggest feasibility of proactive vaccination approaches

Casey-Bryars, M. et al. (2018) Waves of endemic foot-and-mouth disease in eastern Africa suggest feasibility of proactive vaccination approaches. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2(9), pp. 1449-1457. (doi: 10.1038/s41559-018-0636-x) (PMID:30082738)

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Livestock production in Africa is key to national economies, food security and rural livelihoods, and > 85% of livestock keepers live in extreme poverty. With poverty elimination central to the Sustainable Development Goals, livestock keepers are therefore critically important. Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious livestock disease widespread in Africa that contributes to this poverty. Despite its US$2.3 billion impact, control of the disease is not prioritized: standard vaccination regimens are too costly, its impact on the poorest is underestimated, and its epidemiology is too weakly understood. Our integrated analysis in Tanzania shows that the disease is of high concern, reduces household budgets for human health, and has major impacts on milk production and draft power for crop production. Critically, foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in cattle are driven by livestock-related factors with a pattern of changing serotype dominance over time. Contrary to findings in southern Africa, we find no evidence of frequent infection from wildlife, with outbreaks in cattle sweeping slowly across the region through a sequence of dominant serotypes. This regularity suggests that timely identification of the epidemic serotype could allow proactive vaccination ahead of the wave of infection, mitigating impacts, and our preliminary matching work has identified potential vaccine candidates. This strategy is more realistic than wildlife-livestock separation or conventional foot-and-mouth disease vaccination approaches. Overall, we provide strong evidence for the feasibility of coordinated foot-and-mouth disease control as part of livestock development policies in eastern Africa, and our integrated socioeconomic, epidemiological, laboratory and modelling approach provides a framework for the study of other disease systems.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:The work of the WRLFMD was supported by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Project SE2943: Defra, UK) and funding provided to the EuFMD from the European Union. Doctoral training for M.C.-B. was funded by a BBSRC Doctoral Training Grant. T.L. and R.R. received support from the Scottish Universities Life Sciences Alliance (SULSA). R.F. and G.N. were supported by the Wellcome Trust–funded Afrique One consortium. Community- and policy-related knowledge exchange initiatives were funded through the Afrique One consortium, contributions by Merck Animal Health to the University of Glasgow and the Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health. The African Development Bank funded the Southern African Development Community Transboundary Animal Diseases (SADC TADs) Project at the SADC Secretariat.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lankester, Dr Felix and Haydon, Professor Daniel and King, Dr Donald and Lembo, Dr Tiziana and Reeve, Professor Richard and Auty, Harriet and Parida, Professor Satya and Fowler, Dr Veronica and Cleaveland, Professor Sarah and Lugelo, Dr Ahmed and Ludi, Dr Anna and Paton, Professor David and Bachanek-Bankowska, Dr Katarzyna
Authors: Casey-Bryars, M., Reeve, R., Bastola, U., Knowles, N. J., Auty, H., Bachanek-Bankowska, K., Fowler, V. L., Fyumagwa, R., Kazwala, R., Kibona, T., King, A., King, D. P., Lankester, F., Ludi, A. B., Lugelo, A., Maree, F. F., Mshanga, D., Ndhlovu, G., Parekh, K., Paton, D. J., Perry, B., Wadsworth, J., Parida, S., Haydon, D. T., Marsh, T. L., Cleaveland, S., and Lembo, T.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Nature Ecology and Evolution
ISSN (Online):2397-334X
Published Online:06 August 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 Springer Nature Limited
First Published:First published in Nature Ecology and Evolution 2(9): 1449-1457
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
518811Towards the strategic control of foot-and-mouth disease in Africa: new techniques for a neglected problemSarah CleavelandBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/H009302/1RI BIODIVERSITY ANIMAL HEALTH & COMPMED
507161Improving the quality of FMD (Foot-and-mouth disease) vaccines by understanding the correlation of vaccine-induced protection with humoral and cellular immune responsesRichard ReeveBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/H009175/1RI BIODIVERSITY ANIMAL HEALTH & COMPMED
632421An effective vaccination programme for the eradication of foot-and-mouth disease from IndiaRichard ReeveBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/L004828/1 1805RI BIODIVERSITY ANIMAL HEALTH & COMPMED