The Glasgow Norms: ratings of 5,500 words on 9 scales

Scott, G. G., Keitel, A. , Becirspahic, M., Yao, B. and Sereno, S. C. (2019) The Glasgow Norms: ratings of 5,500 words on 9 scales. Behavior Research Methods, 51(3), pp. 1258-1270. (doi: 10.3758/s13428-018-1099-3) (PMID:30206797)

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The Glasgow Norms are a set of normative ratings for 5,553 English words on nine psycholinguistic dimensions: arousal, valence, dominance, concreteness, imageability, familiarity, age of acquisition, semantic size, and gender association. The Glasgow Norms are unique in several respects. First, the corpus itself is relatively large, while simultaneously providing norms across a substantial number of lexical dimensions. Second, for any given subset of words, the same participants provided ratings across all nine dimensions (33 participants/word, on average). Third, two novel dimensions—semantic size and gender association—are included. Finally, the corpus contains a set of 379 ambiguous words that are presented either alone (e.g., toast) or with information that selects an alternative sense (e.g., toast (bread), toast (speech)). The relationships between the dimensions of the Glasgow Norms were initially investigated by assessing their correlations. In addition, a principal component analysis revealed four main factors, accounting for 82% of the variance (Visualization, Emotion, Salience, and Exposure). The validity of the Glasgow Norms was established via comparisons of our ratings to 18 different sets of current psycholinguistic norms. The dimension of size was tested with megastudy data, confirming findings from past studies that have explicitly examined this variable. Alternative senses of ambiguous words (i.e., disambiguated forms), when discordant on a given dimension, seemingly led to appropriately distinct ratings. Informal comparisons between the ratings of ambiguous words and of their alternative senses showed different patterns that likely depended on several factors (the number of senses, their relative strengths, and the rating scales themselves). Overall, the Glasgow Norms provide a valuable resource—in particular, for researchers investigating the role of word recognition in language comprehension.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This research was supported in part by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Grant RES-062-23-1900 awarded to S.C.S., and by a Carnegie Collaborative Research Grant (Trust Reference No. 50084) from the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland awarded to S.C.S., G.G.S., and P.J.O.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Sereno, Dr Sara and Yao, Mr Bo and Keitel, Dr Anne and Becirspahic, Mr Marc and Scott, Mr Graham
Authors: Scott, G. G., Keitel, A., Becirspahic, M., Yao, B., and Sereno, S. C.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Psychology & Neuroscience
College of Science and Engineering > School of Psychology
Journal Name:Behavior Research Methods
ISSN (Online):1554-3528
Published Online:11 September 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The Authors
First Published:First published in Behavior Research Methods 51:1258-1270
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
504051Fluent reading and the brain: co-registration and statistical decomposition of eye fixations and anatomically-based electrophysiologySara SerenoEconomic and Social Research Council (ESRC)ES/G035571/1INP - CENTRE FOR COGNITIVE NEUROIMAGING
662761The roles of emotion, frequency, and concreteness in word processing: An investigation using EEG and eye trackingSara SerenoThe Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland (CARNEGTR)50084INP - CENTRE FOR COGNITIVE NEUROIMAGING