DOW-PR dolphin and whale pods routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs)

Wadud, Z., Ullah, K., Hussain, S. , Yang, X. and Qazi, A. B. (2018) DOW-PR dolphin and whale pods routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Sensors, 18(5), 1529. (doi: 10.3390/s18051529) (PMID:29757208)

161905.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.



Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have intrinsic challenges that include long propagation delays, high mobility of sensor nodes due to water currents, Doppler spread, delay variance, multipath, attenuation and geometric spreading. The existing Weighting Depth and Forwarding Area Division Depth Based Routing (WDFAD-DBR) protocol considers the weighting depth of the two hops in order to select the next Potential Forwarding Node (PFN). To improve the performance of WDFAD-DBR, we propose DOlphin and Whale Pod Routing protocol (DOW-PR). In this scheme, we divide the transmission range into a number of transmission power levels and at the same time select the next PFNs from forwarding and suppressed zones. In contrast to WDFAD-DBR, our scheme not only considers the packet upward advancement, but also takes into account the number of suppressed nodes and number of PFNs at the first and second hops. Consequently, reasonable energy reduction is observed while receiving and transmitting packets. Moreover, our scheme also considers the hops count of the PFNs from the sink. In the absence of PFNs, the proposed scheme will select the node from the suppressed region for broadcasting and thus ensures minimum loss of data. Besides this, we also propose another routing scheme (whale pod) in which multiple sinks are placed at water surface, but one sink is embedded inside the water and is physically connected with the surface sink through high bandwidth connection. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has high Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), low energy tax, reduced Accumulated Propagation Distance (APD) and increased the network lifetime.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.61671349 and 61301175), in part by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No.GB180205), in part by the International Scientific and Technological Corporation and Exchange Projects in Shaanxi Province (Grant No. 2017 KW-2005).
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Hussain, Dr Sajjad
Authors: Wadud, Z., Ullah, K., Hussain, S., Yang, X., and Qazi, A. B.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Electronics and Nanoscale Engineering
Journal Name:Sensors
ISSN (Online):1424-8220
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The Authors
First Published:First published in Sensors 18(5):1529
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

University Staff: Request a correction | Enlighten Editors: Update this record